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News and Multimedia Featuring DAR

NIH-funded Study Finds Community-based Efforts Increase HIV Testing, Prompt Behavior Change

Press Release

HIV/AIDS ribbon

An international study supported by NIMH reported today that community efforts, in comparison to standard clinical testing and counseling, yielded greater testing and lower HIV incidence in high-risk individuals.

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NIH-funded Study Defines Treatment Window for HIV-positive Children Infected at Birth

Press Release

mother holds baby boy

HIV-positive children older than 1 year who were treated after showing moderate HIV-related symptoms did not experience greater cognitive or behavior problems compared to peers treated when signs of their infection were still mild, according to a study funded by the National Institutes of Health.

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HIV Variants in Spinal Fluid May Hold Clues in Development of HIV-related Dementia

Science Update

illustration of brain and spinal cord

NIMH-funded researchers found two variants of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of infected study participants that were genetically distinct from the viral variants found in the participants’ blood. The study, published October 6, 2011, in the journal PLoS Pathogens, suggests these CSF variants may help to inform research on the development and treatment of cognitive problems related to HIV infection.

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HIV-Infected Astrocytes Disrupt Blood-Brain Barrier, Contribute to Cognitive Impairment

Science Update

Microscope photo of astrocytes, a type of support cell in the brain.

Astrocytes, a type of support cell in the brain, that are infected with HIV show abnormal connections and functioning that disrupt the blood-brain barrier, according to an NIMH-funded study.

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Focusing on School Attendance Reduces HIV Risk Among Orphaned Teens

Science Update

male teens studying

A comprehensive school support program effectively reduced risk factors associated with infection with HIV among teens who had lost one or both parents, according to early results from a pilot study funded by NIMH. The paper was published online ahead of print on February 17, 2011, in the Journal of Adolescent Health.

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Children Carry Emotional Burden of AIDS Epidemic in China

Science Update

Researcher interviewing with teen study participant

Having a parent with HIV/AIDS or losing one or both parents to the illness leads to poorer mental health among children in China, according to a recent study funded in part by NIMH. Published in the November–December 2009 issue of the Journal of Pediatric Psychology, the study also emphasizes the need to develop culturally and developmentally appropriate measures and interventions for diverse populations.

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Bundling HIV Prevention with Prenatal Care Reduces Risky Sex Behaviors Among At-risk Mothers

Science Update

Pregnant woman sitting on grass

An HIV-prevention program targeted at women receiving prenatal care may effectively reduce risks for HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and unplanned future pregnancies, according to NIMH-funded researchers. Bundling such interventions into existing health care models, like prenatal care, also may be more accessible to those who may not have the time, interest, or resources to attend a stand-alone HIV prevention program. Changing the way prenatal care is provided also may create sustainable advantages in reproductive health for all at-risk women. The study was published in the November 2009 issue of the American Journal of Public Health.

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Teaching Teens About Abstinence May Delay Sexual Activity, Reduce Risk Behaviors

Science Update

teens talking next to school bus

Teens who received a behavioral intervention centered on abstinence were more likely to delay first sexual contact than teens who received a control intervention focusing on general health promotion, according to an NIMH-funded study. Though differing from federally funded abstinence-only programs, the researchers describe how an abstinence-based intervention may help delay sexual activity among adolescents in the February 2010 issue of the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.

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One Subtype of HIV Increases Risk of HIV-associated Dementia

Science Update

HIV infected T cells - thumbnail

In a study of HIV-related cognitive impairment in Uganda, people with HIV subtype D were more likely than those with the other subtypes to have HIV-associated dementia (HAD), according to NIMH-funded researchers. This study, published in the September 1, 2009, issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases, is the first to show that HIV subtype may affect a person’s risk for developing HAD.

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Focusing Efforts on Early-Stage HIV Interventions May Help Prevent Spread of Disease

Science Update

Two men talking at a table

Screening and early intervention with people in the earliest stages of HIV infection may reduce the spread of the disease, according to NIMH-funded researchers. A series of five papers from a small, multisite study were published online ahead of print in June 2009 in the journal AIDS and Behavior.

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