- What is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?
- What are the symptoms of ADHD in children?
- What Causes ADHD?
- How is ADHD diagnosed?
- How is ADHD treated?
- What conditions can coexist with ADHD?
- How can I work with my child’s school?
- Do teens with ADHD have special needs?
- Can adults have ADHD?
- What efforts are under way to improve treatment?
- For more information on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
What efforts are under way to improve treatment?
This is an exciting time in ADHD research. The expansion of knowledge in genetics, brain imaging, and behavioral research is leading to a better understanding of the causes of the disorder, how to prevent it, and how to develop more effective treatments for all age groups.
NIMH has studied ADHD treatments for school-aged children in a large-scale, long-term study called the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA study). NIMH also funded the Preschoolers with ADHD Treatment Study (PATS), which involved more than 300 preschoolers who had been diagnosed with ADHD. The study found that low doses of the stimulant methylphenidate are safe and effective for preschoolers, but the children are more sensitive to the side effects of the medication, including slower than average growth rates.18 Therefore, preschoolers should be closely monitored while taking ADHD medications.19,20
PATS is also looking at the genes of the preschoolers, to see if specific genes affected how the children responded to methylphenidate. Future results may help scientists link variations in genes to differences in how people respond to ADHD medications. For now, the study provides valuable insights into ADHD.21
Other NIMH-sponsored clinical trials on children and adults with ADHD are under way. In addition, NIMH-sponsored scientists continue to look for the biological basis of ADHD, and how differences in genes and brain structure and function may combine with life experiences to produce the disorder.