The Section on Neural Gene Expression investigates the roles and regulation of expression of vasopressin (Avp) and oxytocin (Oxt) in the central nervous system. They are peptide hormones that contain nine amino acids and participate in the regulation of fluid balance, parturition and lactation. In addition, they have important roles in various behaviors, including social and maternal ones, through their actions mediated by at least 3 receptors in the brain. A schematic of their genes is shown below.
Our group uses a variety of techniques, including anatomical (hybridization histochemistry and receptor autoradiography), molecular biological, transgenic animals, optogenetics, and electrophysiology to explore behavior in the mouse. For example, we have generated mice lacking functional Oxt, as well as mice that express green fluorescent protein in Oxt neurons, in our attempts to determine the essential and non-essential roles of this hormone. We also created the first conditional knockout of the oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) and are using them to further our knowledge of Oxt's role in behavior. For example, inactivation of the Oxtr in forebrain excitatory neurons decreases fear conditioning and inactivation in serotonin neurons decrease aggression in males, but not in females. We also showed that the Oxtr is necessary for for intra-strain, but not inter-strain, social recognition.
Our latest work examines the role of the vasopressin 1b receptor (Avpr1b) in the brain. It is expressed predominantly in the CA2 region of the hippocampus, an area that from the AVP-producing paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. We made Avpr1b knockout mice to inactivate the receptor and observed that these mice have a marked reduction in social, but not predatory or defensive, aggression in males and females. They also have modest declines in social recognition in males and females. Recently, we showed that viral replacement of Avpr1b in the CA2 area of the mouse hippocampus in these knockout mice restores aggression. Furthermore, the Avpr1b (and Oxtr) enables significant potentiation of excitatory synaptic responses in CA2, but not in CA1 or in slices from Avpr1b (and Oxtr, respectively) knockout mice.
Our various studies with transgenic and knockout mice, as well as further information on oxytocin and vasopressin, are presented at our mirror site. We hope that you find the information we present there, including protocols and publications, informative and useful.
Current members of the SNGE:
|Scott Young, MD, PhD||49/5A56||301-496-8767|
|Adi Cymerblit-Sabba, PhD||49/5A51||301-496-5565|
|Jarrett Fastman, BA||49/5A51||301-435-1596|
|Michael Granovetter, BA||49/5A51||301-496-9581|
|Emily Shepard, BS||49/5A51||301-496-0716|
|Adam Smith, PhD||49/5A51||301-594-2768|
|June Song, BS||49/5A51||301-594-2245|
|Sarah Williams Avram, PhD||49/5A51||301-451-8332|