Tobacco use remains the Nation's leading preventable cause of premature death. Each year, more than 440,000 Americans die from disease caused by tobacco use, accounting for one in every five deaths. A better understanding of how effective strategies for prevention and treatment can be developed and implemented across diverse segments of the population is crucial to accelerating progress in reducing tobacco use. For this reason, the NIH Office of Medical Applications of Research sponsored a three-day, state-of-the-science conference. Since smoking rates are significantly higher in people with mental disorders than in the general population, NIMH cosponsored and participated in the conference's planning and execution. For more information, please visit the NIH Consensus Development Program site.