Skip to content

Miscellaneous Conditions

Join A Study
For opportunities to participate in NIMH research on the NIH campus, visit the clinical research website. Travel and lodging assistance available.

Featured Studies

Featured studies include only those currently recruiting participants. Studies with the most recent start date appear first.

Reversing Synchronized Brain Circuits With Targeted Auditory-Somatosensory Stimulation to Treat Phantom Percepts

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: October 31, 2018
Location: Ann Arbor, Michigan
Eligibility: Ages 18 and Older, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

The goal of the study is to reduce tinnitus (ringing in the ear) loudness and improve the quality of life for those that are affected by tinnitus. This study will enroll subjects who have bothersome and constant subjective tinnitus with no greater than a mild hearing loss and the ability to control ringing in the ears by doing something with your body or head. Subjects will be given both the treatment and sham arms (this study will randomly assign which treatment will be first) and have a washout period in between the two treatment groups that could be as many as 10 weeks. The study will take approximately 32 weeks for study subjects and the study will enroll approximately 100 individuals.

Forms of Racial Discrimination Study

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: September 26, 2018
Location: Boston, Massachusetts
Eligibility: Ages 18 and Older, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

The project aims to evaluate a brief intervention for coping with racism-related experiences for people of color and examine momentary factors that may buffer the negative mental health impact of racism.

Project EQuIP: Empowering Queer Identities in Psychotherapy

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: July 18, 2018
Location: New York, New York
Eligibility: Females, Ages 18–35, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

The aim of this study is to develop an evidence-based psychosocial intervention for sexual minority women. This intervention will specifically target the adverse mental and behavioral health outcomes disproportionately experienced by sexual minority women, including depression, suicidality, and alcohol abuse, which are known to be driven by stigma-related stressors associated with their sexual orientation (i.e., minority stress processes).

PK Study of 90-Day Use of Vaginal Rings Containing Dapivirine and Levonorgestrel

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: July 17, 2018
Location: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Eligibility: Females, Ages 18–45, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

This is a Phase I single-center, two-arm, open-label, randomized study in healthy HIV-negative women to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and bleeding patterns associated with 90-day use of matrix vaginal rings containing 200 mg Dapivirine and 320 mg Levonorgestrel.

VillageWhere: Innovative Mobile Technology for Youth With Conduct Disorder and Their Parents

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: July 16, 2018
Location: Seattle, Washington
Eligibility: Ages 13 and Older, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

The goal of this Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) is to develop, evaluate, and commercialize a linked parent-youth mobile app system, VillageWhere, to support the key treatment targets of evidence-based treatments for youth with conduct disorders: clear parental expectations, parental monitoring, discipline consistency, and parental support, while simultaneously cultivating intrinsic motivation in youth toward prosocial behaviors. When used in conjunction with an evidence-based treatment for delinquent youth, VillageWhere could help reduce treatment length and cost. When provided in non-evidence-based clinical settings, VillageWhere may increase access to state-of-the-art clinical techniques to those who might not otherwise receive them. Investigators will conduct usability and acceptability tests of new features with target-end-users (youth and their parents) and key stakeholders (i.e., probation officers, clinic administrators). Once usability and acceptability is achieved, investigators will conduct a 16-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing VillageWhere to an attention-control (placebo) mobile app. We expect that across four time points, VillageWhere use will result in greater improvements in parent management practices and youth autonomy support, parent-youth communication and connectedness, youth intrinsic motivation for positive behavior, and youth conduct problems than the placebo. The RCT will occur with 100 parent-youth dyads recruited from various treatment and probation settings, and represent clinically-significant conduct-problems of various clinically-significant severity levels.

Technical and Translational Development of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) Imaging

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: July 12, 2018
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 7–99, Accepts Healthy Volunteers


Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important non-invasive tool to study and diagnose cardiovascular disease. MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields and radio waves to create pictures of body organs. Researchers want to find better MRI methods and new ways of imaging cardiovascular disease and better understand normal and abnormal cardiovascular and brain function. Researchers are also interested in seeing if gadolinium, the commonly used MRI contrast agent, stays in the body long after the MRI was performed.


To develop new methods for imaging the heart and other organs of the body.

To describe cardiovascular diseases using newer MRI methods

To look at the relationship between cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors and other organ systems

To look for gadolinium deposits in the brain from prior exams.


Healthy people and people with known or suspected cardiovascular disease ages 7 and older may be eligible for this study.

Researchers may be particularly interested in those who:

- Have suspected or known cardiovascular disease

- Were previously exposed to a gadolinium-based contrast agent,

- Need to have a heart MRI scheduled

- Need a test of the heart or other body part or will be undergoing a future cardiac catheterization


There are multiple arms to the study with optional components; therefore, there are multiple variations as to what an individual participant s experience may involve.

Participants will have an MRI scan lasting up to 2 hours. The scanner is a large hollow tube. During the scan, there may be loud knocking and buzzing sounds caused by the scanner. Participants will lie on a table that slides in and out of the tube. Their vital signs may be monitored.

Participants may have a test of heart electrical activity using wires connected to pads on the skin.

Participants may have blood drawn.

Participants may be injected with an MRI contrast agent through a plastic tube inserted in the arm.

Reducing the Duration of Untreated Psychosis in the United States

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: February 19, 2018
Locations: Boston, Massachusetts; New York, New York
Eligibility: Ages 12–30, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

The goal of this project is to investigate whether a systematic screening approach for individuals with first episode psychosis (FEP) can substantially reduce Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP). The study team will evaluate the feasibility of screening a consecutive help-seeking population entering mental health services in order to facilitate early identification of FEP cases, rapid referral to specialty care and engagement in treatment.

Development of Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation Techniques

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: January 11, 2018
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 18–65, Accepts Healthy Volunteers


Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) may help diagnose and treat psychiatric and neurological illness. But there is not enough research on how to apply NIBS. This includes how strong to make it, where on the brain to apply it, and for how long. Researchers also want to see what the brain is doing when it receives NIBS.


To increase the effectiveness of NIBS.


Healthy native English speakers ages 18-65


Participants will be screened under another protocol with:

Medical and psychiatric history

Psychiatric evaluation

Physical exam

Urine tests

All participants will start with a 2-hour visit for screening. (see below). They may learn how to do tasks that will be used later. After the screening session, they will be scheduled for an MRI session.

The next part of the study is 4 substudies. Each substudy includes up to 4 sessions. A session is usually 2-3 hours but can last up to 8 hours. Participants can join multiple substudies, but only 1 at a time. They can do only 1 session on a given day.

Each substudy includes the following:

Behavioral tests: Interviews; questionnaires; simple tasks; and tests of memory, attention, and thinking

Electromyography: Small sticky electrodes on the skin measure muscle activity.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation: A wire coil is held to the scalp. A brief electrical current passes through the coil and affects brain activity.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Participants lie on a table that slides into a machine that takes pictures of the brain. A coil is placed over the head. They will perform simple tasks while in the scanner. They may also get TMS.

Electroencephalography: Small electrodes on the scalp record brain waves.

Sponsoring Institution: National Institute of M

Reaching and Engaging Depressed Senior Center Clients (REDS)

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: January 1, 2018
Location: New York, New York
Eligibility: Ages 55–100, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of two types of group therapy sessions. The research is being done because the researchers are trying to learn if these approaches could be used by therapist in the community social service agencies to treat older adults with depression. There are two study groups. One group is a form of group therapy called "Engage-M", which encourages subjects to engage in physical and social activities that they find pleasurable or rewarding. One group is another form of group therapy called, "Wellness in Mind and Body", which focuses on education and de-stigmatization of health and mental health conditions.

Recruitment and Characterization of Healthy Research Volunteers for NIMH Intramural Studies

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: November 1, 2017
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 18 and Older, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

Objective: To screen and create a list of adult volunteers in good health for participation in research studies conducted at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland. Develop a normative set of structural and functional brain MRI scans that are linked to healthy research volunteer characteristics. Maximize scientific impact of data from volunteers by broadly sharing with other researchers.

Study Population: Adult males and females in general good health who are 18 years of age and older.

Design: Adult individuals who are interested in participating in NIMH IRP clinical studies as a healthy research volunteer can directly visit or be directed to visit the study website where they will first consent electronically and then complete a set of online self-report measures. Items may include: demographic information, mental health symptoms, disability status, substance use patterns, handedness and clinical/family history. Individuals who are flagged based on predetermined responses to survey items will be further screened by a member of the study clinical team. If found to be ineligible for the study because of a clinically significant or unstable medical or mental health condition, these individuals will be referred back to the community and/or given information about NIMH clinical studies for which they may be eligible. Respondents with no flags or who pass through additional screening will be scheduled for an in-person assessment. During the outpatient appointment and after in-person informed consent, participants will receive a brief clinical interview to screen for current medical and mental conditions, and risk for self-harm. They will complete assessments of psychological, emotional, physiologic, biological and cognitive functioning. Participants will undergo a physical exam and be asked to provide blood and urine samples for routine clinical labs as well as additional blood samples for future secondary analysis that could include genetic or biomarker assays. Participants can separately consent for an optional baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. All consent forms will explicitly inform participants that if enrolled in the study, their de-identified data will be broadly and publicly shared through NIH-approved data repositories. Participants in this recruitment and characterization study will then be placed on a list of healthy research volunteers from which other NIMH IRP studies may recruit according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria in their respective IRB-approved protocols.

Outcome Measures: Outcome measures may include demographic data, mental and medical history and symptoms, results of psychological, emotional, physiologic, biological, and cognitive testing, physical exam and MRI findings.

SMART Africa (Strengthening Mental Health Research and Training)

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: October 6, 2017
Location: Masaka, Uganda
Eligibility: Ages 8–13, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

The objective of this research study is to examine the implementation of and outcomes associated with an evidence-based practice (EBP), specifically Multiple Family Group (MFG) targeting youth disruptive behavior challenges and success, through a scale up intervention study in Uganda, and two pilot studies that will be conducted in Kenya and Ghana

Evaluation of a Novel PET Radioligand to Image Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: October 3, 2017
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 18–100, Accepts Healthy Volunteers


A radioligand is a radioactive substance that is used to diagnose diseases. A new ligand is called [11C]PS13. This has a small amount of radioactivity that can be detected by a positron emission tomography (PET) scan. If this ligand works well in this study, researchers may be able to use it to better understand and diagnose brain disorders.


To evaluate if [11C]PS13 can measure its receptor, which is involved in inflammation. To see if researchers get the same results when scanning a person twice.


Healthy people ages 18 and older who are in Protocol 01-M-0254.


This study requires three visits of 2 5 hours each.

Participants will have 2 PET scans with [11C]PS13.

A needle will guide a small plastic tube (catheter) into an arm vein. The needle will be removed, leaving only the catheter in the vein. The ligand will be injected through the catheter.

The PET scanner is shaped like a doughnut. Participants will lie on a bed that slides in and out of the scanner.

Participants will wear a molded a plastic mask that fits the head.

Another catheter will be put into an artery at the wrist or elbow area.

Vital signs will be monitored during the PET scan. Participants will have a test during the PET scan to monitor heart function.

Participants will have blood and urine tests.

Participants will have 1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The MRI scanner is a metal cylinder surrounded by a strong magnetic field. Participants will lie on a table that slides in and out of the cylinder.

Internet-Delivered Positive Affect Program in Managing Emotion in Young Adult Cancer Survivors

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: April 21, 2017
Location: Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Eligibility: Ages 18–39, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

This pilot clinical trial studies how well an internet-delivered positive affect (PA) intervention works in managing emotion in young adult cancer survivors. An internet-delivered PA intervention may teach younger cancer survivors healthy coping skills and help doctors to learn more about what effects mood may have on the health and well-being of young adults with cancer.

Innovative Methods to Assess Psychotherapy Practices (imAPP)

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: April 1, 2017
Locations: Palo Alto, California; Boston, Massachusetts; Chelsea, Massachusetts; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Eligibility: Ages 18 and Older, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

This project compares two methods of assessing the quality of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) that do not involve directly observing sessions: 1) adherence checklists embedded in clinical notes, and 2) rating the quality of worksheets that are completed with therapist guidance during sessions. It also examines whether ratings of worksheets completed on a mobile app are reliable and valid quality measures. This information can inform strategies to monitor and enhance CBT quality, which can ultimately improve the quality of care and clinical outcomes.

3Ps for Prevention Study (Perception, Partners, Pills)

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: March 24, 2017
Location: Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
Eligibility: Females, Ages 16–25, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

This study has two phases. It will be conducted in one site in CT only. Phase I is to enumerate interest in PrEP uptake among young South African women exposed to a culturally-appropriate social marketing campaign. This enumeration will also serve as a recruitment strategy for a cohort with open-label PrEP access in Phase II. The cohort will assess PrEP acceptability and adherence among 200 HIV-uninfected young women who are offered open-label daily oral PrEP and randomized to receive or not receive a short term cash incentive conditional on study drug adherence.

The Menopause Transition: Estrogen Variability, Stress Reactivity and Mood

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: January 24, 2017
Location: Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Eligibility: Females, Ages 45–60, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Women in the menopause transition ('perimenopause') are exposed to extreme hormone variability, tend to experience a unique set of severe stressors (e.g., divorce, death of loved ones), and are also at substantially elevated risk to suffer from mood and anxiety disorders. The purpose of this research is to understand the mechanisms by which variability in estradiol (E2) is associated with the symptoms of anxiety and anhedonia (loss of interest and pleasure - a common symptom of depression). By stabilizing E2 variability with a hormonal manipulation, this research will determine the degree to which the E2 variability (or E2 levels) plays a causal role in perimenopausal anxiety and anhedonia symptoms and whether it does so by affecting biological responses to stress.

Multisystemic Therapy-Emerging Adults Trial

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: September 30, 2016
Locations: Hartford, Connecticut; New Haven, Connecticut
Eligibility: Ages 17–21, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

This study's purpose is to test the effectiveness of a promising intervention for emerging adults (EAs) with mental illness (MI) and serious antisocial behavior in achieving the ultimate outcome of reduced antisocial behavior, and proximal intermediate outcomes. Multisystemic Therapy-Emerging Adults (MST-EA) is an adaptation of MST, a well-established, effective intervention for antisocial behavior in adolescents.

Computerized Screening for Comorbidity in Adolescents With Substance or Psychiatric Disorders

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: September 1, 2016
Locations: Baltimore, Maryland; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Eligibility: Ages 11–17, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

The KSADS-COMP will facilitate identification of comorbid psychiatric and substance use diagnoses frequently missed in clinical practice, and improve adolescent treatment outcomes. The self-administered version of the KSADS-COMP can also be used cost-effectively in schools and juvenile justice settings where there is a growing interest in early identification and referral of youth in need of mental health services. The KSADS-Bridge assessment tool with its RDoC neurocognitive tasks, when completed with the self- or clinician administered KSADS-COMP, will help to create cross-talk between the DSM and RDoC diagnostic perspectives, and begin to generate a database on the relationship between RDoC constructs and treatment outcomes across a range of diagnostic categories.

Pregnancy and Anxious Thoughts: The Role of the Immune and Endocrine Systems

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: June 24, 2016
Location: Baltimore, Maryland
Eligibility: Females, Ages 18 and Older, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

The aim of the proposed research is to identify the clinical and biological phenotypes that define perinatal anxiety. The importance of this research to public health is that it will help to identify women at high risk, and will also serve as the basis for further studies that would identify genetic and epigenetic markers of risk and lead to research to identify novel treatment targets. The research is based upon preliminary data demonstrating a relationship between inflammatory cytokines and Trait anxiety in pregnancy; between progesterone and postpartum anxiety; and between allopregnanolone and obsessive symptoms in pregnancy. The proposed research will build upon these preliminary findings by prospectively examining the clinical features of anxiety in a cohort of pregnant women and healthy matched controls, and by analyzing blood samples from the same cohort for inflammatory cytokines, reproductive hormones, and immune cell types. The proposed study will therefore identify the clinical and biological phenotypes that characterize perinatal anxiety and will identify potential novel targets for treatment.

PET Imaging of Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) in Brain and Peripheral Organs of McCune-Albright Syndrome

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: April 15, 2016
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 18–100, Accepts Healthy Volunteers


McCune-Albright Syndrome (MAS) is a disorder that affects the bones, skin, and some hormone-producing tissues. It is associated with a mutation in a gene. This gene affects enzymes in the brain and body. Researchers want to learn more about one of these enzymes, Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), in people with MAS.


To see if people with MAS have higher levels of PDE4 than people without MAS.


People ages 18 and older who have MAS and participated in protocol 98-D-0145, Screening and Natural History of Patients with Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia and the McCune-Albright Syndrome. Healthy adult volunteers are also needed.


This study requires 1 to 4 outpatient visits to the NIH Clinical Center. Some visits may take place on the same day.

Participants with MAS will be screened with medical history and physical exam. They will have blood and urine tests.

Participants will have a magnetic resonance imaging scan.

Participants will have a full body positron emission tomography (PET) scan. A small amount of a radioactive chemical, [11C](R)-rolipram, will be given through an intravenous tube.

Participants will have a brain PET scan with [11C](R)-rolipram. For this, a thin plastic tube will also be put into an artery at their wrist or elbow crease area.

For the scans, participants will lie on a bed that slides in and out of a scanner. They may wear a plastic mask to hold their head in place. They will have blood drawn.

Participants with MAS will be interviewed about their thinking and mood. They may complete questionnaires about how they feel or think.

Effectiveness of Nurse-delivered Care for Adherence/Mood in HIV in South Africa

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: March 31, 2016
Location: Cape Town, South Africa
Eligibility: Ages 18 and Older, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

The purpose of this study is to conduct a two-arm effectiveness trial in Cape Town, South Africa of a Xhosa-adapted, nurse-delivered, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment for depression and adherence, integrated into the HIV care setting in patients with HIV who did not achieve viral suppression from first-line treatment. The CBT treatment will be compared to enhanced usual care (Enhanced Treatment As Usual - ETAU) on study endpoints (as described in study endpoints section below).

Stress & Premenstrual Symptoms Study

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: January 31, 2016
Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Eligibility: Females, Ages 18–50, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

This is a pilot study that aims to evaluate the psychophysiology of premenstrual mood disorders (PMDs) at baseline and after treatment with sertraline. Participants will include women with PMDs and healthy male and female controls. Participation involves a baseline visit to determine eligibility and three study visits that include questionnaires and stress reactivity assessment via an acoustic startle paradigm, cortisol, and immune markers, as well as hormone and genetic measures. Female participants with PMDs will receive sertraline during the premenstrual phase.

Using Telehealth to Improve Psychiatric Symptom Management

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: September 30, 2015
Locations: Nashua, New Hampshire; Providence, Rhode Island
Eligibility: Ages 18 and Older, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

The overarching aim of this study is to evaluate whether telehealth leads to better mental health outcomes and decreased use of acute and crisis-based mental health care services by randomly assigning 300 people with serious mental illness (SMI) and psychiatric instability receiving services at 1 of 2 community mental health centers (CMHCs), each of which offers integrated behavioral and primary health care, to either Health Home Usual Care alone or telehealth plus Health Home Usual Care for 12 months, with assessments at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months.

A Cognitive Behavioral And Structural HIV Prevention Intervention for Young Ugandan Sex Workers

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: August 31, 2015
Location: Entebbe, Uganda
Eligibility: Females, Ages 15–24, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

This study develops and tests a behavioural and structural intervention to prevent unprotected sex among young female sex workers. Half the participants will receive the intervention and half will receive the standard of care.

Smoking Cessation Following Psychiatric Hospitalization

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: July 31, 2015
Location: Austin, Texas
Eligibility: Ages 18 and Older, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

Smoking rates among individuals with psychiatric disorders are disproportionately higher than the general population. The majority of psychiatric hospitals ban smoking on hospital grounds, thus providing an opportunity for inpatients to experience abstinence. Yet smokers in inpatient psychiatric settings are infrequently provided with referrals for cessation treatment on discharge (< 1 %) and most resume smoking upon discharge. Therefore, the integration of effective cessation interventions within the current mental health treatment system is a public health priority.

The overall objective of this project is to adapt a Sustained Care (SusC) model to smokers with severe mental illness (SMI) engaged in a psychiatric hospitalization and to conduct a randomized, pragmatic effectiveness trial designed to assess the benefit of this adapted SusC intervention in real-world practice. We will test the hypothesis that, among smokers with SMI in inpatient psychiatric treatment (n = 422), SusC will result in significantly greater rates of cotinine-validated, 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 6- and 12-months compared to a group that receives Usual Care (UC) about smoking cessation. Furthermore, we hypothesize that a higher proportion of SusC vs. UC patients will use evidence-based smoking cessation treatment (counseling and pharmacotherapy) in the month after discharge. We will also explore the effect of SusC on health and health care utilization in the 12 months post-discharge (psychiatric symptoms, psychiatric and medical hospital readmissions and emergency room visits) and the effectiveness of SusC on smoking abstinence in patient diagnostic subgroups.

The expected outcome of this project is a demonstration of the effectiveness of a Sustained Care intervention for smoking cessation in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) following psychiatric hospitalization. Future studies could extend these findings to individuals with SMI receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment or psychotherapy. Overall, this research would have a significant positive public health impact that will move us closer to the long-term goal of dissemination and integration of the Sustained Care model to increase smoking cessation and decrease smoking related morbidity and mortality in people with severe mental illness.

Checking Out Checking In: The Development and Validation of an Electronic Screening Tool for Pediatric Psychosocial Distress

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: April 18, 2015
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 8–21, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers


- Medical problems and treatments can cause stress in some people. Researchers want to learn more about how to measure distress in young people with medical illnesses. A screening tool called Checking In will be developed in order to help researchers find ways to identify concerns and stresses common to this group.


- To create a screening tool that will help health care providers identify psychological and social distress in young people with serious illnesses.


- Outpatient youth ages 8 21 who are enrolled on a research protocol at the NIH at the time of the study.


- Phase 1 participants will complete a paper-and-pencil version of Checking In. It asks about mood, pain, fatigue, peer relationships, and sleep. During this phase, participants will be asked about the wording of the questions in Checking In. They will also talk about what they thought of the questions and if they understood them.

- Phase 2 will not involve participant enrollment. During this phase the researchers will be working with technologists to develop the software for an electronic version of Checking In.

- Phase 3 participants will complete an electronic version of Checking In. Researchers will ask questions about the ease or difficulty of using an electronic screen.

- Phase 4 participants and one of their caregivers will complete an electronic version of Checking In. They will also complete other questionnaires related to mood, pain fatigue, peer relationships and sleep. They will be asked their thoughts about using Checking In. On the same day, their NIH doctor will get summary data about their questionnaire answers. The doctor will also provide feedback about the summary form.

- Researchers will compare data from Checking In with data from the other questionnaires.

Influence on Plasticity of Brain Temperature

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: February 13, 2015
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 18–50, Accepts Healthy Volunteers


- Brain activity changes with changes in body temperature. Brain activity can be studied with a procedure called transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Researchers want to cool the brain through the scalp using a cooling cap. They want to see if cooling changes the brain and body s response to TMS.


- To look at the effects of cooling on the brain.


- Right-handed adults age 18-50 who can abstain from caffeine and tobacco.


- Participants will be screened with medical history and physical exam. They will be asked about alcohol use, smoking, and substance abuse. They may take a pregnancy test. They may have a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain. For MRI, participants lie on a table that slides in and out of a metal tube that takes pictures.

- Participants will have 3 outpatient visits. The following procedures will occur at each visit.

- Participants will wear a cooling cap for up to 45 minutes. Cool water will flow through the cap. It will feel like an ice pack in a towel. Their core temperature will be monitored. Their temperature will also be measured under their tongue and on scalp, stomach, forearm, and calf.

- Participants will have TMS before and after wearing the cap. A brief electrical current will pass through a wire coil held on their scalp. Electrodes that detect muscle movement will be placed on their hand. They will also have repetitive TMS, which uses repeated magnetic pulses. Their wrist will also receive a shock.

Adaptation of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Persons at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: January 31, 2015
Location: Boston, Massachusetts
Eligibility: Ages 16–25, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of a modification of CET (Cognitive Enhancement Therapy) to address symptomatic and functional difficulties associated with Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR).

Cognition for Learning and for Understanding Everyday Social Situations (CLUES) is designed to improve cognitive functioning (e.g., memory, attention, planning, etc.) in order to improve school, work, and social functioning. CLUES includes the following:

1. Computerized cognitive remediation ("exercises") to improve cognition.

2. Social-cognitive skills group designed to teach participants to act wisely in social situations.

3. Individual coaching sessions designed to enhance translation of skills learned from computer exercises and the group into real life.

CLUES is based on Hogarty and Greenwald's Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET), which was designed for treating individuals with schizophrenia. Research on CET for individuals with schizophrenia has found that CET appears to have helped participants improve cognition and social and work functioning.

This study will investigate the feasibility of CLUES for young people who are showing signs of clinical risk for psychosis.

Part 1: Preliminary open label trial of CLUES (n=8) to examine preliminary evidence of target engagement (change in cognition and social cognition), to refine assessment and recruitment approaches, to further optimize the treatment manual, and to ascertain feasibility and tolerability.

Part 2: Preliminary randomized controlled trial of CLUES vs supportive therapy (ST) + computer games to explore preliminary evidence of efficacy of CLUES vs. the control treatment (n=30).

Longitudinal Family/Molecular Genetic Study to Validate Research Domain Criteria

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: October 31, 2014
Location: Syracuse, New York
Eligibility: Ages 6–12, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

The purpose of this research is to study new ways of classifying mental disorders in children based on observable behavior and genetics to ultimately diagnose these disorders better.

Reducing Duration of Untreated Psychosis Through Rapid Identification and Engagement

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: September 30, 2014
Location: Sacramento, California
Eligibility: Ages 12–30, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

Reducing Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) is a primary goal for improving long-term outcomes in young people with a first episode of psychosis (FEP). The "standard of FEP care" within the US focuses on targeted provider education regarding signs and symptoms of early psychosis to motivate patient referrals to FEP services, followed by initiation of services within largely clinic-based settings Experience at the Early Diagnosis and Preventive Treatment (EDAPT) FEP specialty program at U.C. Davis in Sacramento has identified two important bottlenecks to reducing DUP, consistent with reports in the literature from other FEP clinics. These are 1) delays in the identification of psychotic symptoms by referral sources, and 2) delays or disruptions of patient engagement in specialty FEP care. Building upon a comprehensive and established referral network of 20 sites across the Sacramento area (schools/universities, ER/inpatient hospitals, outpatient mental health, primary care), the investigators will address delays in patient identification and engagement using a two-phase, cluster randomized design. The investigators will consecutively test the impact of two interventions to reduce DUP, defined in this RFA as time from first onset of psychotic symptoms to engagement in FEP specialty care. To address identification delays, the investigators will examine the use of standard targeted provider education plus novel technology-enhanced screening compared to standard targeted provider education alone, testing the hypothesis that the education plus technology-enhanced screening will identify more patients, earlier in their illness. To address engagement delays, the investigators will compare the use of a mobile community-based, telepsychiatry-enhanced engagement team to standard clinic-based procedures for intake, engagement and initiation of treatment, to test the hypothesis that the mobile approach facilitates earlier and more stable engagement, thereby reducing DUP. The proposed work will provide new specific evidence-based practices for reducing DUP and improving outcomes through specialty care of individuals with a first episode of psychosis.

Exercise and Markers of Medial Temporal Health in Youth At-risk for Psychosis

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: July 31, 2014
Location: Boulder, Colorado
Eligibility: Ages 16–24, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

The goal of this proposal is to test the feasibility and effectiveness of cardiovascular exercise in promoting brain health and improving related symptoms (e.g., hearing sounds that are not there, feeling emotionally detached from self and others), cognitive difficulties (troubles with memory and learning), and every day social-occupational functioning in youth at imminent risk for developing a psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia. Understanding how exercise may protect or improve the health of a brain area that is implicated as a major contributing factor to the onset of psychosis may lead to a path-breaking new intervention that does not suffer from many of the side effects, costs, and other barriers that characterize treatments that are currently available for this group. Because a significant portion of high-risk youth go on to develop a psychotic disorder in a short period, intervening at this stage may help to improve the clinical course and ultimately prevent the onset of a devastating and prevalent mental illness.

Reducing the Duration of Untreated Psychosis

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: May 31, 2014
Location: Granada Hills, California
Eligibility: Ages 15–65, Does Not Accept Healthy Volunteers

The study examines the possible effect of a community campaign to decrease the duration of untreated psychosis in persons with their first episode of a psychotic disorder.

Brain Stimulation and Vision Testing

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: May 22, 2012
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 18–50, Accepts Healthy Volunteers


- The brain has two systems for recognizing objects. One system recognizes what an object is, and the other system recognizes where the object is located. However, there is much about how the brain handles and interprets the information from these two systems that is still unclear. Researchers want to study the parts of the brain that are involved in how vision is processed. They will use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the brain. MRI measures what parts of the brain become more active when tasks are performed. TMS uses magnetic pulses to temporarily change the activity in parts of the brain.


- To better understand how people visually recognize different types of objects.


- Healthy volunteers between 18 and 50 years of age.


- This study includes many different experiments on vision. Each experiment may combine visual tasks, MRI scans, and TMS. Participants may be asked to have several different tests. Each test will require a separate visit to the National Institutes of Health.

- Participants will be screened with a physical exam and medical history. They will have a baseline brain scan at the first visit.

- Participants may do visual tasks alone, with MRI only, with TMS only, or with MRI and TMS combined. For the visual tasks, they will look at pictures of objects on a computer screen. Sometimes the images will appear very briefly (less than one-tenth of a second). Sometimes they will appear for up to 5 seconds. These images will be of things like faces, bodies, tools, and scenes. Participants will be asked to respond in different ways to the pictures. They may respond by typing on a computer keyboard or by pressing a button. Participants will have time to practice the tasks before the experiment.

- Participants will remain on the study for up to 3 years.

A Longitudinal Investigation of the Endocrine and Neurobiologic Events Accompanying Puberty

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: September 13, 2011
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 8–35, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Despite the clear importance of adolescence in the emergence of a number of disease states and processes, there is surprisingly little known about how the endocrine and metabolic events accompanying puberty in humans impact normal developmental neurobiology. Epidemiologic studies have identified sexual dimorphisms in the prevalence of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, schizophrenia, and substance abuse. Many of these sex differences emerge during or shortly after puberty and are maintained until the 5th-6th decade of life. For example, the two-fold greater risk of unipolar depression in women compared with men does not appear until adolescence, and prior to puberty girls are not at increased risk relative to boys. Puberty is a structured, transitional process that can be influenced by both nutritional factors and environmental stressors; nonetheless, the variability in the timing and duration of puberty is largely determined by oligogenic inheritance. Basic neuroscience research has demonstrated that hormonal events accompanying puberty impact on many of the physiologic systems involved in the regulation of brain function (e.g., the appearance of new neurons in a brain-region specific pattern, neuronal remodeling, and the pruning of cortical connectivity). Additionally, not only does stress during puberty increase the risk of disturbances in affective adaptation during adulthood, but the events accompanying puberty modify stress responsivity (e.g., alterations in the duration and peak response of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis hormones to stressors). Moreover, animal work has demonstrated that neural connectivity differs in a brain regional specific manner according to the stage of puberty (i.e., early versus late). In humans, puberty also occurs in stages, and although the endocrinology of puberty, surprisingly, has not been fully characterized with longitudinal data, studies have documented that the physical changes measured by Tanner stages I to V are accompanied by progressive increases in the secretions of both gonadal and adrenal steroids. Nonetheless, there remains considerable variability in the timing and duration of this otherwise highly structured reproductive transition.

We propose to perform a longitudinal, naturalistic study examining changes in brain structure and function, behavior, and stress responsivity in boys and girls across the pubertal transition. Because the pubertal transition is defined by a complex series of physiologic events that emerge sequentially over several years and involve changes in multiple endocrine and growth systems, and because there is also considerable variability in the timing of these events reflecting the influence of both genetic and environmental factors, puberty cannot by delineated by age of the participants as has been done in most imaging and other neurobiological studies of adolescence. The present study will formally bridge this gap by defining pubertal events per se in participants.

Participants will include healthy boys and girls whose pubertal status will be assessed, and in whom endocrine, metabolic, and brain imaging measures will be evaluated at eight - ten month intervals from age eight years (pre-puberty) until age 17 years (post-puberty). Reproductive endocrine, metabolic, and physical measures will be employed to characterize the stage and duration of pubertal development. Outcome measures will be derived via multimodal neuroimaging techniques, cognitive/behavioral assessments, metabolic measurements, and evaluations of HPA axis function. Additionally, the impact of genetic variation on the developmental trajectory of these parameters (both reproductive and CNS) will be determined.

This cross-institute proposal will employ a multidisciplinary approach to evaluating the effects on CNS function of the process of puberty in both boys and girls. This work will not only serve to inform research on the mechanisms by which sexual dimorphisms in neuropsychiatric disorders develop, it will also have important implications for the prevention and treatment of these disorders.

Development of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging Techniques for Imaging Metabolites in Human Brain and Muscle

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: December 23, 2010
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 18–65, Accepts Healthy Volunteers


- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a widely used scanning technique to obtain images of the human body and evaluate activity in the brain. A particular MRI method called magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to study brain chemistry as well, which may help researchers who are studying new treatments for psychiatric illnesses. Researchers are interested in improving current MRI and MRS techniques, as well as developing new MRI and MRS techniques to view and measure brain chemicals and brain activity.


- To implement, develop, and optimize brain chemistry imaging techniques using magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.


- Healthy individuals between 18 and 65 years of age.


- This study will involve a screening visit and a scanning visit at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center.

- Participants will be screened with a full medical and physical examination, blood and urine tests, and neurological testing.

- During the second visit, participants will have an MRI scan of the brain. (Participants who have received an MRI within the past year will not need to have a second one; the images of the previous scan will be used for this study.) All participants will then have an MRS scan using the same scanning equipment.

Defining the Brain Phenotype of Children With Williams Syndrome

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: April 30, 2010
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 5–70, Accepts Healthy Volunteers


- Little is known about how the brain changes during childhood and adolescence, how genes affect this process, or how the brains of people with Williams syndrome change during this period. Genetic features of Williams syndrome affect the brain s development, but the details of this process have not been studied over time. Researchers are interested in using magnetic resonance imaging to study how the brain changes in healthy children and children with Williams syndrome and related genetic disorders.


- To study developmental changes in the brains of healthy children and children who have been diagnosed with Williams syndrome or a related genetic disorder.


- Healthy children and adolescents between 5 and 17 years of age.

- Children and adolescents between 5 and 17 years of age who have been diagnosed with Williams syndrome or genetic characteristics that overlap with Williams syndrome.


- Participants will have a brief physical examination and tests of memory, attention, concentration, and thinking. Parents will be asked about their child s personality, behavior characteristics, and social interaction and communication skills.

- Both participants and their parents may be asked to complete additional questionnaires or take various tests as required for the study.

- Participants will have approximately 10 hours of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, usually over 4 to 5 days, within a one month period. Some of these tests will require the participants to do specific tasks while inside the MRI scanner.

- Participants will be asked to return to the National Institutes of Health clinical center to repeat these procedures every 2 years thereafter until age 18.

Top-Down Attentional Control of Visual-Processing

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: February 22, 2010
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 18 and Older, Accepts Healthy Volunteers


- Previous studies have shown that people with certain types of brain damage may have particular problems paying attention and processing things that they see. Researchers are interested in comparing how people with brain damage and without brain damage process visual images.


- To better understand the areas of the brain involved in paying attention to things that are seen.


- Individuals at least 18 years of age who either have had damage to one or both sides of specific parts of the brain (e.g., stroke, injury, certain neurosurgery procedures) or are healthy volunteers.


- The study involves 4 to 10 visits to the NIH Clinical Center over 1 to 2 years. Each visit will last approximately 2 hours.

- Participants will be screened with a medical history and physical examination, and may have the cognitive testing described below during the same visit.

- On the first visit and for at least one visit thereafter, participants will have cognitive testing to evaluate thinking and memory. These tests will be either written tests or computer-based tests.

- Some participants will qualify for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as part of the study. This part will involve a decision-making task that will be performed on a computer during the fMRI scan. Additional scans may be required as directed by the study doctors.

- Some randomly selected participants will be asked to have magnetoencephalography (MEG), a procedure to record very small magnetic field changes produced by brain activity.

- During the behavioral training, or fMRI or MEG scanning, participants may be monitored with equipment to track eye movements.

Surveillance Monitoring for ART Toxicities Study in HIV Uninfected Children Born to HIV Infected Women

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: March 31, 2007
Locations: Birmingham, Alabama; La Jolla, California; Los Angeles, California; Aurora, Colorado; Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Jacksonville, Florida; Miami, Florida; Chicago, Illinois; New Orleans, Louisiana; Newark, New Jersey; Bronx, New York; Brooklyn, New York; New York, New York; Memphis, Tennessee; Houston, Texas; San Juan, Puerto Rico
Eligibility: Ages N/A and Older, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

SMARTT will estimate the incidence of conditions and diagnoses potentially related to in utero exposure to antiretroviral therapy and/or exposure in the first two months of life among children born of HIV-infected mothers.

Protein Synthesis in the Brain of Patients With Fragile X Syndrome

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: August 8, 2006
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Males, Ages 18–24, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Biosynthesis of proteins is essential for growth and continued maintenance of the entire neuron including axons, dendrites, and synaptic terminals, and it is clearly one of the important biochemical processes underlying adaptive changes in the nervous system. Studies in experimental animals with the quantitative autoradiographic L [1 (14)C]leucine method have demonstrated a number of the physiological and pathological conditions in which changes in regional rates of cerebral protein synthesis (rCPS) occur.

We have recently developed the first fully quantitative method for determining rCPS with positron emission tomography (PET). The PET method was adapted from the autoradiographic L [1 (14)C]leucine method; it uses L [1 (11)C]leucine as the PET tracer, dynamic scanning, and a kinetic modeling approach for quantification. This method was validated in nonhuman primates by comparison of PET measurements with those based on established biochemical and autoradiographic techniques.

The objective of the present study is to examine the degree to which changes in rCPS in human subjects can be quantified with the L [1 (11)C]leucine PET method. We propose three studies to be carried out sequentially. In Part I we will establish the L-[1-(11)C]leucine PET method in human subjects. In Part II we will measure rCPS in normal control subjects in two states: awake and under deep sedation/general anesthesia with propofol. A difference in rCPS between these two states may indicate that we can detect activity-dependent protein synthesis with the PET method. In Part III we will study subjects with fragile X syndrome. This patient group was chosen since the affected gene in fragile X syndrome codes for a protein that is thought to be a negative regulator of message translation. Thus an effect on protein synthesis may be very close to the underlying genetic abnormality in fragile X syndrome. Regionally selective increases in rCPS have been found in studies in a mouse model of this disease.

The present study will establish the sensitivity of the L [1 (11)C]leucine PET method to detect changes in rCPS in human subjects. A quantitative and sensitive method to measure rCPS with PET will augment the tools available for investigating the brain and its regional adaptive responses. Ultimately the method may have widespread applications, not only for the study of normal development and plasticity but also in clinical medicine, e.g., in the investigation of disorders of brain development, recovery from brain injury, and neurodegenerative diseases.


1. Establish the L-[1-(11)C]leucine PET method for measurement of rCPS in human subjects. Evaluate the optimal scan time and the variability of the measurement in an individual.

2. Determine the effect of deep sedation with propofol on rCPS in normal human subjects. We will use the [1-(11)C]leucine PET method to evaluate lambda, i.e., the fraction of the precursor pool for protein synthesis that is derived from arterial plasma, and rCPS in the same subjects under awake and deep sedation conditions.

I) Hypothesis 1a. Deep sedation with propofol has effects on rCPS.

II) Hypothesis 1b. Deep sedation with propofol has effects on values of lambda.

3. Assess the sensitivity of the [1-(11)C]leucine PET method to detect differences in rCPS in subjects with fragile X syndrome.

I) Hypothesis 3a. There are regionally selective changes in rCPS in subjects with fragile X syndrome compared with age-matched healthy controls. Regions affected include hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and frontal and parietal cortex.

II) Hypothesis 3b. In centrum semiovale, cerebellum, striatum and occipital and temporal cortex rCPS are unchanged in subjects with fragile X syndrome compared with age-matched healthy controls.

III) Hypothesis 3c. Values of lambda in the brain as a whole and in the regions examined are unchanged in subjects with fragile X syndrome compared with age-matched healthy controls.

IV) Hypothesis 3d. The average rate of protein synthesis in the brain as a whole is unchanged in subjects with fragile X syndrome compared with age-matched healthy controls.

MRS Measurement of Glutamate and GABA Metabolism in Brain

Study Type: Interventional
Start Date: April 21, 2005
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 18–65, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

This study will use magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure in the brain the transfer of [13]C as it is naturally metabolized from glucose to specific chemical transmitters. From this method, we can measure the rate of production of an important excitatory neurotransmitter (glutamate) as well as an inhibitory neurotransmitter (GABA).

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of Neuropsychiatric Patients and Healthy Volunteers

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: February 14, 2000
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 18 and Older, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

The purpose of this study is to use brain imaging technology to compare differences in brain structure, chemistry, and functioning in individuals with brain and mental disorders compared to healthy volunteers.

Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that results from subtle changes and abnormalities in neurons. These deficits likely occur in localized regions of the brain and may result in widespread, devastating consequences. The neuronal abnormalities are inherited through a complex combination of genetic and environmental factors. Brain imaging technologies can be used to better characterize brain changes in individuals with schizophrenia. This study will use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to identify predictable, quantifiable abnormalities in neurophysiology, neurochemistry and neuroanatomy that characterize schizophrenia and other neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Studies of Blood Flow to the Brain During Thought

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: July 2, 1993
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 18–65, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

The purpose of this study is to use brain imaging technology to measure changes in blood flow to areas in the brain as individuals perform intellectual tasks.

This study will use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine blood flow to areas of the brain as participants engage in tasks associated with visual perception, visual recognition, and memory.

The Effects of Reproductive Hormones on Mood and Behavior

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: April 25, 1992
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Females, Ages 18–50, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

This study evaluates the effects of estrogen and progesterone on mood, the stress response, and brain function in healthy women.

The purpose of this study is to evaluate how low levels of estrogen and progesterone (that occur during treatment with leuprolide acetate) compare to menstrual cycle levels of estrogen and progesterone (given during individual months of hormone add-back) on a variety of physiologic measures (brain imaging, stress testing, etc.) in healthy volunteer women without PMS.

This study will investigate effects of reproductive hormones by temporarily stopping the menstrual cycle with leuprolide acetate and then giving, in sequence, the menstrual cycle hormones progesterone and estrogen. Tests (such as brain imaging or stress testing, etc.) will be performed during the different hormonal conditions (low estrogen and progesterone, progesterone add-back, estrogen add-back). The results of these studies will be compared between women without PMS and women with PMS (see also protocol 90-M-0088).

At study entry, participants will undergo a physical examination. Blood, urine, and pregnancy tests will be performed. Cognitive functioning and stress response will be evaluated during the study along with brain imaging and genetic studies.

Brain Imaging of Childhood Onset Psychiatric Disorders, Endocrine Disorders and Healthy Volunteers

Study Type: Observational
Start Date: January 10, 1989
Location: Bethesda, Maryland
Eligibility: Ages 3 and Older, Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) unlike X-rays and CT-scans does not use radiation to create a picture. MRI use as the name implies, magnetism to create pictures with excellent anatomical resolution. Functional MRIs are diagnostic tests that allow doctors to not only view anatomy, but physiology and function. It is for these reasons that MRIs are excellent methods for studying the brain.

In this study, researchers will use MRI to assess brain anatomy and function in X and Y chromosome variation, healthy volunteers, and patients with a variety of childhood onset psychiatric disorders. The disorders include attention deficit disorder, autism, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, childhood-onset schizophrenia, dyslexia, obsessive compulsive disorder, Sydenham's chorea, and Tourette's syndrome.

Results of the MRIs showing the anatomy of the brain and brain function will be compared across age, sex (gender), and diagnostic groups. Correlations between brain and behavioral measures will be examined for normal and clinical populations.