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Study Reveals New Clues to How Depression May Develop

Science Update

Activating neurons in a brain structure linked to disappointment increased depression-like behaviors in rats, while suppressing the neurons' activity reduced the behaviors, according to an NIMH-funded study. The findings help to explain previous research linking this brain structure to depression in humans and highlight a cellular process that hadn't been previously explored in mood disorders research. The study was published in the February 24, 2011, issue of Nature.


Depression is one of the most studied mental disorders, with research honing in on brain structures, circuits, and biochemical processes critical to the development of the disorder. Yet many questions remain about how changes in the brain result in the observable symptoms and behaviors associated with depression.

To advance the science in this area, Bo Li, Ph.D., of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York, and colleagues, explored the role and connectivity of neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) in rats that showed learned helplessness, a set of behaviors similar to symptoms of depression in people. The LHb is associated with how humans and animals experience disappointment or anticipate negative outcomes.

Results of the Study

The researchers found that LHb neurons receive input from many different brain regions involved in responding to stress. LHb neurons also connect out to many brain regions, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA helps to control reward-seeking behavior and may have a role in depression and other mood disorders.

LHb neurons in helpless rats were more responsive, such that communication signals to the VTA were more likely to be transmitted in the helpless rats than in control rats. In an attempt to moderate this phenomenon, the researchers tested the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS), a surgical procedure currently being tested in humans for treatment-resistant depression. Applying continuous electrical stimulation directly to the LHb resulted in greatly reduced transmission to the VTA and a marked reduction in helpless behavior. The effects on transmission lasted only as long as the stimulation lasted. More intense stimulation resulted in stronger behavioral effects.


Although LHb activity was previously unstudied in the context of mood disorders, these findings suggest that this brain structure may actually play a central role in the development of depression.

What's Next

Further studies focusing on the molecular processes and signals underlying LHb activity in depression may reveal new targets for treatment development, according to the researchers. Such new treatments also may be able to reverse some forms of depressive disorders.

This study was supported in part by a Biobehavioral Research Award for Innovative New Scientists (BRAINS) from NIMH. Dr. Li was one of 12 researchers to receive this award in 2010.

lateral habenula neuron
Lateral habenula neuron labeled with green fluorescent protein. The area marked by a white box is shown at greater magnification in the image on the right.

Source: Bo Li, Ph.D., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory


Li B, Piriz J, Mirrione M, Chung C, Proulx CD, Schulz D, Henn F, Malinow R. Synaptic potentiation onto habenula neurons in the learned helplessness model of depression . Nature. 2011 Feb 24;470(7335):535-9. PubMed PMID: 21350486.