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Construct: Loss

RDoC Classification

Domain: Negative Valence Systems

Description

A state of deprivation of a motivationally significant con-specific, object, or situation. Loss may be social or non-social and may include permanent or sustained loss of shelter, behavioral control, status, loved ones, or relationships. The response to loss may be episodic (e.g., grief) or sustained.

Molecules

Androgens CRH Estrogens Glucocorticoid receptors Inflammatory molecules Oxytocin Vasopressin

Circuits

Amygdala Default mode network DLPFC Habit systems (Striatum/caudate/accumbens) Hippocampus Insula Orbitofrontal cortex Parietal cortex Posterior cingulate PVN Reward circuitry vmPFC

Physiology

ANS HPA neuroimmune Prolonged psychophysiological reactivity

Behavior

Amotivation Anhedonia Attentional bias to negative valenced information Crying Executive function Guilt Increased self-focus Loss of drive Loss-relevant recall bias Morbid Thoughts Psychomotor retardation Rumination Sadness Shame Withdrawal Worry

Self-Report

LEDS STRAIN

Paradigms

Sadness eliciting film clips