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Construct: Sustained Threat

RDoC Classification

Domain: Negative Valence Systems

Description

An aversive emotional state caused by prolonged (i.e., weeks to months) exposure to internal and/or external condition(s), state(s), or stimuli that are adaptive to escape or avoid. The exposure may be actual or anticipated; the changes in affect, cognition, physiology, and behavior caused by sustained threat persist in the absence of the threat, and can be differentiated from those changes evoked by acute threat.

Molecules

ACTH CRF HPA-axis hormones

Cells

Hippocampal Microglia prefrontal

Circuits

Attention network Dysregulation of amygdala reactivity Dysregulation of cingulate reactivity Habit systems (Striatum/caudate/accumbens) Hypothalamic nuclei PVT Vigilance network

Physiology

Dysregulated HPA axis Error-related negativity

Behavior

Anhedonia/decreased appetitive behavior Anxious Arousal Attentional bias to threat Avoidance Decreased libido Helplessness behavior Increased conflict detection Increased perseverative behavior Memory retrieval deficits Punishment sensitivity

Self-Report

Childhood Trauma Questionnaire LEDS Risky Families STRAIN TESI Youth Life Stress Interview