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Construct: Sustained Threat

RDoC Classification

Domain: Negative Valence Systems


An aversive emotional state caused by prolonged (i.e., weeks to months) exposure to internal and/or external condition(s), state(s), or stimuli that are adaptive to escape or avoid. The exposure may be actual or anticipated; the changes in affect, cognition, physiology, and behavior caused by sustained threat persist in the absence of the threat, and can be differentiated from those changes evoked by acute threat.


ACTH CRF HPA-axis hormones


Hippocampal Microglia prefrontal


Attention network Dysregulation of amygdala reactivity Dysregulation of cingulate reactivity Habit systems (Striatum/caudate/accumbens) Hypothalamic nuclei PVT Vigilance network


Dysregulated HPA axis Error-related negativity


Anhedonia/decreased appetitive behavior Anxious Arousal Attentional bias to threat Avoidance Decreased libido Helplessness behavior Increased conflict detection Increased perseverative behavior Memory retrieval deficits Punishment sensitivity


Childhood Trauma Questionnaire LEDS Risky Families STRAIN TESI Youth Life Stress Interview