Child and Adolescent Mental Health
Teen Depression Study: Understanding Depression in Teenagers
Mental health is an important part of overall health for children as well as adults. For many adults who have mental disorders, symptoms were present—but often not recognized or addressed—in childhood and adolescence. For a young person with symptoms of a mental disorder, the earlier treatment is started, the more effective it can be. Early treatment can help prevent more severe, lasting problems as a child grows up.
It can be tough to tell if troubling behavior in a child is just part of growing up or a problem that should be discussed with a health professional. But if there are behavioral signs and symptoms that last weeks or months, and if these issues interfere with the child’s daily life at home and at school, or with friends, you should contact a health professional.
Young children may benefit from an evaluation and treatment if they:
- Have frequent tantrums or are intensely irritable much of the time
- Often talk about fears or worries
- Complain about frequent stomachaches or headaches with no known medical cause
- Are in constant motion and cannot sit quietly (except when they are watching videos or playing videogames)
- Sleep too much or too little, have frequent nightmares, or seem sleepy during the day
- Are not interested in playing with other children or have difficulty making friends
- Struggle academically or have experienced a recent decline in grades
- Repeat actions or check things many times out of fear that something bad may happen.
Older children and adolescents may benefit from an evaluation if they:
- Have lost interest in things that they used to enjoy
- Have low energy
- Sleep too much or too little, or seem sleepy throughout the day
- Are spending more and more time alone, and avoid social activities with friends or family
- Diet or exercise excessively, or fear gaining weight
- Engage in self-harm behaviors (such as cutting or burning their skin)
- Smoke, drink alcohol, or use drugs
- Engage in risky or destructive behavior alone or with friends
- Have thoughts of suicide
- Have periods of highly elevated energy and activity, and require much less sleep than usual
- Say that they think someone is trying to control their mind or that they hear things that other people cannot hear.
Mental illnesses can be treated. If you are a child or teen, talk to your parents, school counselor, or health care provider. If you are a parent and need help starting a conversation with your child or teen about mental health, visit MentalHealth.gov's Parents and Caregivers page. If you are unsure where to go for help, ask your pediatrician or family doctor or visit NIMH’s Help for Mental Illnesses webpage.
It may be helpful for children and teens to save several emergency numbers to their cell phones. The ability to get immediate help for themselves or for a friend can make a difference.
- The phone number for a trusted friend or relative
- The non-emergency number for the local police department
- The Crisis Text Line: 741741
- The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 1-800-273-TALK (8255).
If you or someone you know needs immediate help, call 911 or the National Suicide Prevention LifeLine at 1-800-273-TALK (8255).
- Persistent, Distressing Psychotic-like Experiences Associated with Impairment in Youth
• Press Release
In this NIMH-funded study, researchers examined the association between distressing and persistent psychotic-like experiences in youth and important risk factors for psychopathology.
- Media Advisory: Prototype App for Mobile Devices Could Screen Children at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder
• Media Advisory
A mobile app was successful at distinguishing toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from typically developing toddlers based on their eye movements while watching videos, according to a study funded by the National Institutes of Health.
- Study Identifies Risk Factors for Elevated Anxiety in Young Adults During COVID-19 Pandemic
• Press Release
A new study has identified early risk factors that predicted heightened anxiety in young adults during the coronavirus pandemic.
Health Topics and Resources
Featured Health Topics
- Anxiety Disorders
- Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, ADD)
- Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
- Bipolar Disorder (Manic-Depressive Illness)
- Coping with Traumatic Events
- Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
- Eating Disorders
- Medications: Children and Teens
- Suicide Prevention
Featured Brochures and Fact Sheets
- Get Excited about the Brain!: This science education activity book intended for children ages 8-12 years old helps kids learn facts about the brain through games and puzzles about brain science and research.
- Getting to Know Your Brain: Dealing with Stress: Test your knowledge about stress and the brain. Also learn how to create and use a “stress catcher” to practice strategies to deal with stress.
- Guided Visualization: Dealing with Stress: Learn how the brain handles stress and practice a guided visualization activity.
- Stand Up to Stress!: This free, printable coloring and activity book for children ages 8-12 teaches kids about stress and anxiety and offers tips for coping in a healthy way.
- Stress Catcher: This is a printable, "fortune teller" craft for children that offers coping strategies to help manage stress and other difficult emotions.
- Child Mental Health: The National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus offers resources to support children’s mental health (en español).
- Data and Statistics on Children’s Mental Health: This Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report provides data and statistics about mental disorders in U.S. children.
- For Educators: MentalHealth.gov: Educators are often the first to notice mental health problems. Here are some ways you can help students and their families.
- For Friends and Family: Mentalhealth.gov: Anyone can experience mental health problems. Friends and family can make all the difference in a person’s recovery process.
- NIDA for Teens website: This website was created for middle and high school students and their teachers by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). The website provides accurate and timely information for use in and out of the classroom.
- Self-Harm: Self-harm refers to a person harming their own body on purpose and it tends to begin in teen or early adult years. MedlinePlus offers resources to learn more about self-harm (en español).
- Shareable Resources on Children and Adolescent Mental Health: Use these digital resources from NIMH, including graphics and messages, to raise awareness about the importance of child and adolescent mental health.
- Teen Mental Health: MedlinePlus provides resources about adolescent mental health (en español).
It can be challenging to diagnose mental disorders in children and adolescents. NIMH actively supports research focused on the relationship between behavioral and emotional changes and the brain.
Got 60 seconds? Take a mental health minute to learn about stress and anxiety in adolescents.
Got 60 seconds? Take a mental health minute to learn about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADHD.
- National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: The Lifeline provides 24-hour, toll-free, and confidential support to anyone in suicidal crisis or emotional distress. Call 1-800-273-TALK (8255) to connect with a skilled, trained counselor at a crisis center in your area. Support is available in English and Spanish and via live chat.
- Disaster Distress Hotline: People affected by any disaster or tragedy can call this helpline, sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, to receive immediate counseling. Call or text 1-800-985-5990 to connect with a trained professional from the closest crisis counseling center within the network.
- Crisis Text Line: Text HELLO to 741741 for free and confidential support 24 hours a day throughout the U.S.
- TXT 4 HELP: Created by National Safe Place, this nationwide, 24-hour text service provides support for teens in crisis.
- More NIH Information Lines
Children are not little adults, yet they are often given medicines and treatments that were only tested in adults. There is a lot of evidence that children’s developing brains and bodies can respond to medicines and treatments differently than how adults respond. The way to get the best treatments for children is through research designed specifically for them.
Should your child participate in a clinical study?
Parents and caregivers may have many questions when they are considering enrolling a child in a clinical study, and that children and adolescents also want to know what they will go through. NIMH is committed to ensuring that families trying to decide whether to enroll their child in a clinical study get all the information they need to feel comfortable and make informed decisions. The safety of children remains the utmost priority for all NIMH and NIH research studies.
For more information, visit NIH Clinical Trials and You: For Parents and Children. To find studies for children and teens being conducted at NIMH, visit Join a Study: Children. To find a clinical trial near you, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Last Revised: May 2019
Unless otherwise specified, NIMH information and publications are in the public domain and available for use free of charge. Citation of the NIMH is appreciated. Please see our Citing NIMH Information and Publications page for more information.