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Construct: Acute Threat ("Fear")

RDoC Classification

Domain: Negative Valence Systems

Description

Activation of the brain’s defensive motivational system to promote behaviors that protect the organism from perceived danger. Normal fear involves a pattern of adaptive responses to conditioned or unconditioned threat stimuli (exteroceptive or interoceptive). Fear can involve internal representations and cognitive processing, and can be modulated by a variety of factors.

Molecules

BDNF CCK Cortisol/Corticosterone CRF family Dopamine Endogenous cannabinoids FGF2 GABA Glutamate Neuropeptide S Neurosteroids NMDAR NPY Orexin Oxytocin Serotonin Vasopressin

Cells

GABAergic cells Glia Neurons Pyramidal cells

Circuits

autonomic nervous system BasAmyg Central Nucleus d-hippocampus (ant) dmPFC (pl) dorsal ACC dPAG Hypothalamus ICMs insular cortex LatAmyg latPFC/insula LC Medial Amyg OFC PAG Pons rostral/vent ACC RPVM v-hippocampus (post) vmPFC (il) vPAG

Physiology

BP Context Startle EMG Eye Tracking Facial EMG Fear Potentiated Startle Heart Rate pupillometry Respiration Response accuracy Skin Conductance

Behavior

Analgesia approach (early development) Avoidance Facial expressions Freezing Open field Response inhibition Response time Risk assessment Social approach

Self-Report

Fear survey schedule SUDS

Paradigms

Behavioral Approach Test CO2 Challenge Test Cold Pressor Test Fear conditioning Stranger Tests Trier Social Stress Test