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Negative Valence Systems: Active threat (fear) - NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC)

Domain: Negative Valence Systems
Construct: Active threat (“fear”)
————— Units of Analysis —————

BDNF, 5HT/5HTRs, CRF, FKB5, GABAARs, Glutamate system, NMDARs, Opioid system, COMT, Cannabinoid system, Dopamine, DAT, Cam kinase, MAP kinase, PI-3 kinase, PKA, PKC, Acetylcholine, Norepinephrine, Strathmin, Pkap, TRBC5

NMDAR, Glutamate, Dopamine, Serotonin, BDNF, GABA, Cortisol/
Corticosterone, Endogenous cannabinoids, orexin, NPY, CRF family, FGF2, Oxytocin, Vasopressin, CCK, Neuropeptide S, Neurosteroids

Neurons, Glia, Pyramidal cells, GABAergic cells

Central Nucleus, BasAmyg, LatAmyg, vPAG, dPAG, v-hippocampus (post), d-hippocampus (ant), latPFC/insula, vmPFC (il), dmPFC (pl), OFC, Hypothalamus, dorsal ACC, rostral/vent ACC, ICMs, Medial Amyg, PAG, RPVM, Pons, autonomic nervous system, insular cortex, LC

Fear Potentiated Startle, Context Startle, Skin Conductance, Heart Rate, EMG, BP, Eye Tracking, Response accuracy, facial EMG, Respiration, pupillometry

Freezing, Response time, Avoidance, Response inhibition, Open field, Social approach, Analgesia, approach (early development), Risk assessment, Facial expressions

Fear survey schedule, BAI, STAI, SUDS, Fear Questionnaire, Trait Fear Inventory, Eilam Ethogram, Structured Diagnostic and Assessment scales, Albany Panic & Phobia

Fear conditioning, viewing aversive pictures or films, emotional imagery