Skip to main content

Transforming the understanding
and treatment of mental illnesses.

Celebrating 75 Years! Learn More >>


  1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Key Substance Use and Mental Health Indicators in the United States: Results from the 2021 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Report No. HHS Publication No. PEP22-07-01-005, NSDUH Series H-57, (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD, 2022).
  2. Whiteford, H. A. et al. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 382, 1575-1586, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61611-6 (2013).
  3. Collins, P. Y. et al. Grand challenges in global mental health. Nature 475, 27-30, doi:10.1038/475027a (2011).
  4. Olfson, M., Gerhard, T., Huang, C., Crystal, S. & Stroup, T. S. Premature Mortality Among Adults With Schizophrenia in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry 72, 1172-1181, doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.1737 (2015).
  5. Remien, R. H. et al. Mental health and HIV/AIDS: the need for an integrated response. AIDS 33, 1411-1420, doi:10.1097/QAD.0000000000002227 (2019).
  6. Arensen, M. C., B.  Vol. 28 PTSD Research Quarterly (ed U.S. Department of Veteran's Affairs) (National Center for PTSD, White River Junction, Vermont, 2017).
  7. Scherrer, J. F. et al. Association Between Clinically Meaningful Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Improvement and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. JAMA Psychiatry 76, 1159-1166, doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.2096 (2019).
  8. Fazel, S., Hayes, A. J., Bartellas, K., Clerici, M. & Trestman, R. Mental health of prisoners: prevalence, adverse outcomes, and interventions. Lancet Psychiatry 3, 871-881, doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30142-0 (2016).
  9. Kessler, R. C. et al. Individual and societal effects of mental disorders on earnings in the United States: results from the national comorbidity survey replication. Am J Psychiatry 165, 703-711, doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08010126 (2008).
  10. Bloom, D. E. et al. The Global Economic Burden of Noncommunicable Diseases. (World Economic Forum, Geneva, 2011).
  11. World Health Organization. Investing in Mental Health. (Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence, Noncommunicable Diseases and Mental Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2003).
  12. Prevention, C. f. D. C. a. Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS); Fatal Injury Reports, National, Regional and State, 1981 - 2020, < > (2023).
  13. Curtin S.C., G. M. F., Ahmad F.B. Provisional numbers and rates of suicide by month and demographic characteristics: United States, 2021. (2022).
  14. Wang, Q., Xu, R. & Volkow, N. D. Increased risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality in people with mental disorders: analysis from electronic health records in the United States. World Psychiatry 20, 124-130, doi:10.1002/wps.20806 (2021).
  15. Vai, B. et al. Mental disorders and risk of COVID-19-related mortality, hospitalisation, and intensive care unit admission: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry 8, 797-812, doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(21)00232-7 (2021).
  16. Pardamean, E., Roan, W., Iskandar, K. T. A., Prayangga, R. & Hariyanto, T. I. Mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in patients with schizophrenia: A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 75, 61-67, doi:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2022.01.010 (2022).
  17. Ahmedani, B. K. et al. Health care contacts in the year before suicide death. J Gen Intern Med 29, 870-877, doi:10.1007/s11606-014-2767-3 (2014).
  18. Miller, I. W. et al. Suicide Prevention in an Emergency Department Population: The ED-SAFE Study. JAMA Psychiatry 74, 563-570, doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2017.0678 (2017).
  19. Ballard, E. D. et al. Identification of At-Risk Youth by Suicide Screening in a Pediatric Emergency Department. Prev Sci 18, 174-182, doi:10.1007/s11121-016-0717-5 (2017).
  20. Addington, J. et al. Duration of Untreated Psychosis in Community Treatment Settings in the United States. Psychiatr Serv 66, 753-756, doi:10.1176/ (2015).
  21. Robinson, D. G. et al. Prescription practices in the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders: data from the national RAISE-ETP study. Am J Psychiatry 172, 237-248, doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13101355 (2015).
  22. Correll, C. U. et al. Cardiometabolic risk in patients with first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders: baseline results from the RAISE-ETP study. JAMA Psychiatry 71, 1350-1363, doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.1314 (2014).
  23. Kane, J. M. et al. Comprehensive Versus Usual Community Care for First-Episode Psychosis: 2-Year Outcomes From the NIMH RAISE Early Treatment Program. Am J Psychiatry 173, 362-372, doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.15050632 (2016).
  24. Dixon, L. B. et al. Implementing Coordinated Specialty Care for Early Psychosis: The RAISE Connection Program. Psychiatr Serv 66, 691-698, doi:10.1176/ (2015).
  25. Rosenheck, R. et al. Cost-Effectiveness of Comprehensive, Integrated Care for First Episode Psychosis in the NIMH RAISE Early Treatment Program. Schizophr Bull 42, 896-906, doi:10.1093/schbul/sbv224 (2016).
  26. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (ed Department of Health and Human Services) (2015).
  27. Department of Veterans Affairs, V. H. A. (ed Department of Veterans Affairs) (2020).
  28. Shim, R. S. & Starks, S. M. COVID-19, Structural Racism, and Mental Health Inequities: Policy Implications for an Emerging Syndemic. Psychiatr Serv, appips202000725, doi:10.1176/ (2021).
  29. Clauss-Ehlers, C. S., Chiriboga, D. A., Hunter, S. J., Roysircar, G. & Tummala-Narra, P. APA Multicultural Guidelines executive summary: Ecological approach to context, identity, and intersectionality. Am Psychol 74, 232-244, doi:10.1037/amp0000382 (2019).
  30. Akinyemiju, T., Jha, M., Moore, J. X. & Pisu, M. Disparities in the prevalence of comorbidities among US adults by state Medicaid expansion status. Prev Med 88, 196-202, doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.04.009 (2016).

Updated: May 2023