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The Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch



Ballard ED, Yarrington JS, Farmer CA, Richards E, Machado-Vieira R, Kadriu B, Niciu MJ, Yuan P, Park L, Zarate CA Jr.  Characterizing the course of suicidal ideation response to ketamine.  J Affect Disord. 2018 Dec 1;241:86-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.07.077. Epub 2018 Jul 30.  [PMID: 30099268].

Ballard ED, Yarrington JS, Farmer CA, Lener MS, Kadriu B, Lally N, Williams D, Machado-Vieira R, Niciu MJ, Park L, Zarate CA Jr.  Parsing the heterogeneity of depression: An exploratory factor analysis across commonly used depression rating scales.  J Affect Disord. 2018 Apr 15;231:51-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.01.027. Epub 2018 Feb 5.  [PMID: 29448238].

Duncan WC Jr, Slonena EE, Hejazi NS, Brutsche N, Park LT, Henter ID, Ballard ED, Zarate CA Jr.  Are 24-hour motor activity patterns associated with continued rapid response to ketamine?  Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2018 Oct 16;14:2739-2748. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S172089. eCollection 2018.  [PMID: 30410340].

Evans JW, Szczepanik J, Brutsché N, Park LT, Nugent AC, Zarate CA Jr. Default Mode Connectivity in Major Depressive Disorder Measured Up to 10 Days After Ketamine Administration. Biol Psychiatry. 2018 Oct 15;84(8):582-590. Epub 2018 Feb 15.  [PMID:29580569]

Gilbert JR, Yarrington JS, Wills KE, Nugent AC, Zarate CA Jr.  Glutamatergic Signaling Drives Ketamine-Mediated Response in Depression: Evidence from Dynamic Causal Modeling.  Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2018 Apr 13. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyy041.  [PMID:

Gould TD, Zarate CA Jr, Thompson SM.  Molecular Pharmacology and Neurobiology of Rapid-Acting Antidepressants.  Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2018 Oct 8. doi: 10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010617-052811. [Epub ahead of print].  [PMID: 30296896].

Kadriu B, Gold PW, Luckenbaugh DA, Lener MS, Ballard ED, Niciu MJ, Henter ID, Park LT, De Sousa RT, Yuan P, Machado-Vieira R, Zarate CA.  Acute ketamine administration corrects abnormal inflammatory bone markers in major depressive disorder.  Mol Psychiatry. 2018 Jul;23(7):1626-1631. doi: 10.1038/mp.2017.109. Epub 2017 May 30.  [PMID: 28555075].

Kadriu B, Musazzi L, Henter ID, Graves M, Popoli M, Zarate CA Jr.  Glutamatergic Neurotransmission: Pathway to Developing Novel Rapid-Acting Antidepressant Treatments.  Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2018 Nov 16. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyy094. [Epub ahead of print].  [PMID: 30445512].

Kadriu B, Yuan S, Farmer C, Nugent AC, Lener MS, Niciu MJ, Park M, Yazdian A, Ballard ED, Henn FA, Henter ID, Park LT, Zarate CA Jr. Clinical Trial of the Potassium Channel Activator Diazoxide for Major Depressive Disorder Halted Due to Intolerability.
J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2018 Jun;38(3):243-246. doi: 10.1097/JCP. [PMID: 29601316].

Moaddel R, Shardell M, Khadeer M, Lovett J, Kadriu B, Ravichandran S, Morris PJ, Yuan P, Thomas CJ, Gould TD, Ferrucci L, Zarate CA. Plasma metabolomic profiling of a ketamine and placebo crossover trial of major depressive disorder and healthy control subjects.  Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2018 Oct;235(10):3017-3030. doi: 10.1007/s00213-018-4992-7. Epub 2018 Aug 16.  [PMID: 30116859].

Niciu MJ, Shovestul BJ, Jaso BA, Farmer C, Luckenbaugh DA, Brutsche NE, Park LT, Ballard ED, Zarate CA Jr. Features of dissociation differentially predict antidepressant response to ketamine in treatment-resistant depression. J Affect Disord. 2018 May; 232:310-315. Epub 2018 Feb 17.  [PMID: 29501990]

Nugent AC, Wills KE, Gilbert JR, Zarate CA Jr.  Synaptic potentiation and rapid antidepressant response to ketamine in treatment-resistant major depression: A replication study.  Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 2018 Sep 12;283:64-66. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2018.09.001. [Epub ahead of print].  [PMID: 30551012].

Nugent AC, Ballard ED, Gould TD, Park LT, Moaddel R, Brutsche NE, Zarate CA Jr. Ketamine has distinct electrophysiological and behavioral effects in depressed and healthy subjects. Mol Psychiatry. 2018 Feb 27. doi: 10.1038/s41380-018-0028-2. [Epub ahead of print].  [PMID:29487402]

Park L, Furey M, Nugent AC, Farmer C, Ellis J, Szczepanik J, Lener MS, Zarate CA Jr.  Neurophysiological Changes Associated with Antidepressant Response to Ketamine Not Observed in a Negative Trial of Scopolamine in Major Depressive Disorder.  Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2018 Sep 1. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyy051.  [PMID: 30184133].

Reed JL, Nugent AC, Furey ML, Szczepanik JE, Evans JW, Zarate CA Jr.  Ketamine normalizes brain activity during emotionally valenced attentional processing in depression.  Neuroimage Clin. 2018 Jul 5;20:92-101. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2018.07.006. eCollection 2018.  [PMID: 30094160].

Saligan LN, Farmer C, Ballard ED, Kadriu B, Zarate CA Jr.  Disentangling the association of depression on the anti-fatigue effects of ketamine.  J Affect Disord. 2019 Feb 1;244:42-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.10.089. Epub 2018 Oct 6.  [PMID: 30312839].

Nugent AC, Ballard ED, Gould TD, Park LT, Moaddel R, Brutsche NE, Zarate CA Jr. Ketamine has distinct electrophysiological and behavioral effects in depressed and healthy subjects. Mol Psychiatry. 2018 Feb 27. doi: 10.1038/s41380-018-0028-2. [Epub ahead of print].  [PMID:29487402]

Zanos P, Thompson SM, Duman RS, Zarate CA Jr, Gould TD.  Convergent Mechanisms Underlying Rapid Antidepressant Action.  CNS Drugs. 2018 Mar;32(3):197-227. doi: 10.1007/s40263-018-0492-x. Review.  [PMID: 29516301]. 

Zanos P, Moaddel R, Morris PJ, Riggs LM, Highland JN, Georgiou P, Pereira EFR, Albuquerque EX, Thomas CJ, Zarate CA Jr, Gould TD.  Ketamine and Ketamine Metabolite Pharmacology: Insights into Therapeutic Mechanisms.  Pharmacol Rev. 2018 Jul;70(3):621-660. [PMID: 29945898]


Ballard ED, Snider SL, Nugent AC, Luckenbaugh DA, Park L, Zarate CA Jr. Active suicidal ideation during clinical antidepressant trials. Psychiatry Res. 2017 Nov;257:303-308. [PMID: 28787656]

Ballard ED, Wills K, Lally N, Richards EM, Luckenbaugh DA, Walls T, Ameli R, Niciu MJ, Brutsche NE, Park L, Zarate CA Jr. Anhedonia as a clinical correlate of suicidal thoughts in clinical ketamine trials. J Affect Disord. 2017 Aug 15;218:195-200. [PMID: 28477497]

Duncan WC Jr, Slonena E, Hejazi NS, Brutsche N, Yu KC, Park L, Ballard ED, Zarate CA Jr. Motor-Activity Markers of Circadian Timekeeping Are Related to Ketamine's Rapid Antidepressant Properties. Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Sep 1;82(5):361-369. [PMID: 28457485]

Fujita M, Richards E, Niciu M, Ionescu D, Zoghbi S, Hong J, Telu S, Hines C, Pike V, Zarate CA Jr, Innis R. cAMP Signaling in Brain is Decreased in Unmedicated Depressed Patients and Increased by Treatment with a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor. Mol Psychiatry 2017;22:754-759. [PMID: 27725657]

Kadriu B, Gold PW, Luckenbaugh DA, Lener MS, Ballard ED, Niciu MJ, Henter ID, Park LT, De Sousa RT, Yuan P, Machado-Vieira R, Zarate CA Jr. Acute ketamine administration corrects abnormal inflammatory bone markers in major depressive disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2017 May 30. [PMID: 28555075]

Lener MS, Niciu MJ, Ballard ED, Park M, Park LT, Nugent AC, Zarate CA Jr. Glutamate and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Systems in the Pathophysiology of Major Depression and Antidepressant Response to Ketamine. Biol Psychiatry. 2017 May 15;81(10):886-897. [PMID: 27449797]

Lepow L, Luckenbaugh DA, Park L, Henter ID, Zarate CA Jr. Case series: Antidepressant effects of low-affinity and low-trapping NMDA receptor antagonists did not predict response to ketamine in seven subjects. J Psychiatr Res. 2017 Mar;86:55-57. [PMID: 27914292]

Machado-Vieira R, Gold PW, Luckenbaugh DA, Ballard ED, Richards EM, Henter ID, De Sousa RT, Niciu MJ, Yuan P, Zarate CA Jr. The role of adipokines in the rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine. Mol Psychiatry, 2017;22:127-133. [PMID: 27046644]

Machado-Vieira R, Luckenbaugh DA, Ballard ED, Henter ID, Tohen M, Suppes T, Zarate CA Jr. Increased Activity or Energy as a Primary Criterion for the Diagnosis of Bipolar Mania in DSM-5: Findings From the STEP-BD Study. Am J Psychiatry. 2017 Jan 1;174(1):70-76. [PMID: 27523498]

Morris PJ, Moaddel R, Zanos P, Moore CE, Gould T, Zarate CA Jr, Thomas CJ. Synthesis and N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Activity of Ketamine Metabolites. Org Lett. 2017 Sep 1;19(17):4572-4575. [PMID: 28829612]

Niciu MJ, Iadarola ND, Banerjee D, Luckenbaugh DA, Park M, Lener M, Park L, Ionescu DF, Ballard ED, Brutsche NE, Akula N, McMahon FJ, Machado-Vieira R, Nugent AC, Zarate CA Jr. The antidepressant efficacy of subanesthetic-dose ketamine does not correlate with baseline subcortical volumes in a replication sample with major depressive disorder. J Psychopharmacol. 2017 Dec;31(12):1570-1577. [PMID: 29039254]

Nugent AC, Miller FG, Henter ID, Zarate CA Jr. The Ethics of Clinical Trials Research in Severe Mood Disorders. Bioethics. 2017 Jul;31(6):443-453. [PMID: 28503892]

Nugent AC, Luber B, Carver FW, Robinson SE, Coppola R, Zarate CA Jr. Deriving frequency-dependent spatial patterns in MEG-derived resting state sensorimotor network: A novel multiband ICA technique. Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 Feb;38(2):779-791. [PMID: 27770478]

Nugent AC, Zarate CA Jr. Using Neuroimaging to Decipher the Mechanism of Action of Ketamine: A Pathway to Novel Therapeutics? Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging. 2017 Oct;2(7):549-551. Epub 2017 Oct 5. No abstract available. [PMID: 29560906]

Park LT, Lener MS, Hopkins M, Iadorola N, Machado-Vieira R, Ballard E, Nugent A, Zarate CA Jr. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Pilot Study of Riluzole Monotherapy for Acute Bipolar Depression. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017 Jun;37(3):355-358. [PMID: 28338546]

Park M, Newman LE, Gold PW, Luckenbaugh DA, Yuan P, Machado-Vieira R, Zarate CA Jr. Change in cytokine levels is not associated with rapid antidepressant response to ketamine in treatment-resistant depression. J Psychiatr Res. 2017 Jan;84:113-118. [PMID: 27718369]

Szczepanik JE, Furey ML, Nugent AC, Henter ID, Zarate CA Jr, Lejuez CW. Altered interaction with environmental reinforcers in major depressive disorder: Relationship to anhedonia. Behav Res Ther. 2017 Oct;97:170-177. [PMID: 28806614]

Vande Voort JL, Ballard ED, Luckenbaugh DA, Bernert RA, Richards EM, Niciu MJ, Park LT, Machado-Vieira R, Duncan WC Jr, Zarate CA Jr. Antisuicidal Response Following Ketamine Infusion Is Associated with Decreased Nighttime Wakefulness in Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017 Sep/Oct;78(8):1068-1074. doi: 10.4088/JCP.15m10440. [PMID: 27929610].

Wilkinson ST, Ballard ED, Bloch MH, Mathew SJ, Murrough JW, Feder A, Sos P, Wang G, Zarate CA Jr, Sanacora G. The Effect of a Single Dose of Intravenous Ketamine on Suicidal Ideation: A Systematic Review and Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2017. [Epub ahead of print] [PMID: 28969441]

Zarate CA Jr. What Should be Done When Elderly Patients with Major Depression Have Failed to Respond to All Treatments? Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2017 Nov;25(11):1210-1212. [PMID: 28939286]


Ballard ED, Vande Voort JL, Bernert RA, Luckenbaugh DA, Richards EM, Niciu MJ, Furey ML, Duncan WC Jr, Zarate CA Jr. Nocturnal Wakefulness Is Associated with Next-Day Suicidal Ideation in Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Jun;77(6):825-31. doi: 10.4088/JCP.15m09943. [PMID:27337418].

Berg HE, Ballard ED, Luckenbaugh DA, Nugent AC, Ionescu DF, Zarate CA Jr. Recognition of emotional facial expressions in anxious and nonanxious depression. Compr Psychiatry. 2016 Oct;70:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2016.06.007. Epub 2016 Jun 14. [PMID: 27624417].

Lamers F, Cui L, Hickie IB, Roca C, Machado-Vieira R, Zarate CA Jr, Merikangas KR. Familial aggregation and heritability of the melancholic and atypical subtypes of depression. J Affect Disord. 2016 Nov 1;204:241-6. [PMID: 27450632]

Nugent AC, Iadarola ND, Miller FG, Luckenbaugh DA, Zarate CA Jr. Safety of research into severe and treatment-resistant mood disorders: analysis of outcome data from 12 years of clinical trials at the US National Institute of Mental Health. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016 May;3(5):436-42. [PMID: 26971192]

Nugent AC, Robinson SE, Coppola R, Zarate CA Jr. Preliminary differences in resting state MEG functional connectivity pre- and post-ketamine in major depressive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2016 Aug 30;254:56-66. [PMID: 27362845]

Richards EM, Mathews DC, Luckenbaugh DA, Ionescu DF, Machado-Vieira R, Niciu MJ, Duncan WC, Nolan NM, Franco-Chaves JA, Hudzik T, Maciag C, Li S, Cross A, Smith MA, Zarate CA Jr. A randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial of the delta opioid receptor agonist AZD2327 in anxious depression. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2016 Mar;233(6):1119-30. doi: 10.1007/s00213-015-4195-4. Epub 2016 Jan 4. [PMID: 26728893].

Saligan LN, Luckenbaugh DA, Slonena EE, Machado-Vieira R, Zarate CA Jr. An assessment of the anti-fatigue effects of ketamine from a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2016 Apr;194:115-9. [PMID: 26807672]

Szczepanik J, Nugent AC, Drevets WC, Khanna A, Zarate CA Jr, Furey ML. Amygdala response to explicit sad face stimuli at baseline predicts antidepressant treatment response to scopolamine in major depressive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2016 Aug 30;254:67-73. [PMID: 27366831]

Tohen M, Khalsa HM, Salvatore P, Zarate CA Jr, Strakowski SM, Sanchez-Toledo JP, Baldessarini RJ. The McLean-Harvard First-Episode Project: Early Course in 114 Cases of First-Episode Nonaffective Psychoses. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Jun;77(6):781-8. [PMID: 27232651]

Tseng WL, Thomas LA, Harkins E, Stoddard J, Zarate CA Jr, Pine DS, Leibenluft E, Brotman MA. Functional connectivity during masked and unmasked face emotion processing in bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2016 Dec 30;258:1-9. [PMID: 27814457]

Vande Voort JL, Ballard ED, Luckenbaugh DA, Bernert RA, Richards EM, Niciu MJ, Park L, Machado-Vieira R, Duncan WC Jr, Zarate CA Jr. Antisuicidal response after ketamine infusion is associated with increased nighttime wakefulness in treatment-resistant depression. J Clin Psychiatry 2016. Sep/Oct;78(8):1068-1074. [PMID: 27929610]

Zanos P, Moaddel R, Morris PJ, Georgiou P, Fischell J, Elmer GI, Alkondon M, Yuan P, Pribut HJ, Singh NS, Dossou KS, Fang Y, Huang XP, Mayo CL, Wainer IW, Albuquerque EX, Thompson SM, Thomas CJ, Zarate CA Jr, Gould TD. NMDAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine metabolites. Nature. 2016 May 26;533(7604):481-6. [PMID: 27144355]

Zarate CA Jr, Machado-Vieira R. GSK-3: A key regulatory target for ketamine's rapid antidepressant effects mediated by enhanced AMPA to NMDA throughput. Bipolar Disord. 2016 Dec;18(8):702-705. [PMID: 27900801]


Zanos P, Piantadosi SC, Wu H-Q, Dell MJ, Pribut HJ, Can A, Zarate CA Jr, Schwarcz R, Gould TD. The prodrug 4-chlorokynurenine causes ketamine-like antidepressant, but not side effects, by NMDA/glycineB-site inhibition. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2015; 355:76-85. [PMID: 26265321]

Schaffer A, Isometsa ET, Tondo L, Moreno DH, Sinyor M, Vedel Kessing L, Turecki G, Weizman A, Azorin J-M, H K, Reis C, Cassidy F, Goldstein T, Rihmer Z, Beautrais A, Chou Y-H, Diazgranados N, Levitt AJ, Zarate CA Jr, Yatham L. Epidemiology, neurobiology and pharmacological interventions related to suicide deaths and suicide attempts in bipolar disorder: Part I of a report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on suicide in bipolar disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2015; 49:785-802. [PMID: 26185269]

Lally N, An L, Bannerjee D, Niciu MJ Jr, Luckenbaugh D, Richards E, Roiser JP, Shen J Zarate CA Jr, Nugent AC. Reliability of 1H-MRS measured human prefrontal cortex glutamatergic signals at 7 Tesla: a between and within session investigation. J Magn Reson Imaging 2015 [Epub ahead of print]. [PMID: 26059603]

Nugent AC, Robinson SE, Coppola R, Furey ML, Zarate CA Jr. Group differences in MEG-ICA derived resting state networks: application to major depressive disorder. Neuroimage 2015; 118:1-12. [PMID: 26032890]

Furey ML, Drevets WC, Szczepanik, Khana A, Nugent A, Zarate CA Jr. Pre-treatment differences in BOLD response to emotional faces correlate with antidepressant response to scopolamine. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2015; Mar 28; 18:8. [PMID: 25820840]

Nugent AC, Martinez A, D’Alfonso A, Zarate CA, Theodore WH. The relationship between glucose metabolism, resting-state fMRI BOLD signal, and GABAA-binding potential: a preliminary study in healthy subjects and those with temporal lobe epilepsy. J Cereb Blood Metab 2015; 35:583-591. [PMID: 25564232]


Ballard ED, Lally N, Nugent AC, Furey M, Luckenbaugh DA, Zarate CA Jr. Neural correlates of suicidal ideation and its reduction in depression. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2014; Oct 31; 18:1 [PMID: 25550331]

Ballard ED, Ionescu DF, Vande Voort JL, Niciu MJ, Richards EM, Luckenbaugh DA, Brutsche NE, Ameli R, Furey ML, Zarate CA Jr. Improvement in suicidal ideation after ketamine infusion: relationship to reductions in depression and anxiety. J Psychiatr Res 2014 Nov; 58:161-6. [PMID: 25169854]

Niciu MJ, Luckenbaugh DA, Ionescu DF, Richards EM, Vande Voort JL, Ballard ED, Brutsche NE, Furey M, Zarate CA Jr. Ketamine’s antidepressant efficacy is extended for at least 4 weeks in subjects with a family history of alcohol use disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2014 Oct 31; 18:1. [PMID: 25539512]

Lally N, Nugent AC, Luckenbaugh DA, Ameli R, Rosier JP, Zarate CA Jr. Anti-anhedonic effect of ketamine and its neural correlates in treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Transl Psychiatry 2014 Oct 14; 4:e469. [PMID: 25313512]

Niciu MJ, Luckenbaugh DA, Ionescu DF, Richards EM, Vande Voort JL, Ballard ED, Brutsche NE, Furey ML, Zarate CA Jr. Riluzole does not have antidepressant efficacy in ketamine non-responders. J Psychiatr Res 2014; 58:197-9. [PMID: 25139008]>

Niciu MJ, Luckenbaugh DA, Ionescu DF, Guevara S, Machado-Vieira R, Richards EM, Brutsche NE, Nolan NM, Zarate CA Jr. Clinical predictors of ketamine response in treatment-resistant major depression. J Clin Psychiatry 2014; 75:e417-23. [PMID: 24922494]

Villasenor A, Ramamoorthy A, Silva Dos Santos M, Lorenzo MP, Laje G, Zarate C, Jr., Barbas C, Wainer IW. A pilot study of plasma metabolomic patterns from patients treated with ketamine for bipolar depression: evidence for a response-related difference in mitochondrial networks. Br J Pharmacol 2014; 171:2230-2242. [PMID: 24684390]

Svenningsson P, Berg L, Matthews D, Ionescu DF, Richards EM, Niciu MJ, Malinger A, Toups M, Manji H, Trivedi MH, Zarate CA, Jr., Greengard P. Preliminary evidence that early reduction in p11 levels in natural killer cells and monocytes predicts the likelihood of antidepressant response to chronic citalopram. Mol Psychiatry 2014; 19:962-964. [PMID: 24614495]

Lyoo CH, Zanotti-Fregonara P, Zoghbi SS, Liow JS, Xu R, Pike VW, Zarate CA, Jr., Fujita M, Innis RB. Image-derived input function derived from a supervised clustering algorithm: methodology and validation in a clinical protocol using [(11)c](R)-rolipram. PloS one 2014; 9:e89101. [PMID: 24586526]


Drevets WC, Zarate CA Jr, Furey ML. Antidepressant effects of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist scopolamine: a review. 2013 Jun 15;73(12):1156-63 [PMID: 23200525]

Duncan W, Selter J, Brutsche N, Sarasso S, Zarate Jr. Baseline delta sleep ratio predicts acute ketamine mood response in major depressive disorder. J Affect Disord 2013; 145(1):115-9. [PMID: 22871531]

Furey ML, Drevets WC, Frankel E, Hoffman EM, Speer AM, Zarate CA Jr. Pre-treatment neural activity in visual cortex during processing of emotion information predicts treatment response to scopolamine in major depressive disorder. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Mar;70(3):280-90. [PMID: 23364679]

Machado-Vieira R, Luckenbaugh D, Soeiro-de-Souza MG, Marca G, Busnello JV, Forlenza O, Gattaz WF, Zarate CA Jr. Early improvement with lithium in classic (euphoric) mania predicts later response. J Affect Disord 2013;144:160-4. [PMID: 22906798]

Moaddel R, Abdrakhmanova G, Kozak J, Jozwiak K, Toll L, Jimenez L, Rosenberg A, Thran T, Xiao Y, Zarate CA Jr, Wainer IW. Sub-anesthetic concentrations of (R,S)-ketamine metabolites inhibit acetylcholine-evoked currents in ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Eur J Pharmacology 2013 Jan 5;698(1-3):228-34. [PMID: 23183107]

Nugent AC, Bain EE, Carlson PJ, Neumeister A, Bonne O, Carson RE, Eckelman W, Herscovitch P, Zarate CA Jr, Charney DS, Drevets WC. Reduced post-synaptic serotonin type 1A receptor binding in bipolar depression. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013 Aug;23(8):822-9. [PMID: 23434290]

Nugent AC, Luckenbaugh DA, Wood SE, Bogers W, Zarate CA Jr, Drevets W. Automated subcortical segmentation using FIRST: Test-retest reliability, Inter-scanner reliability, and comparison to hand segmentation. Hum Brain Mapp. 2013 Sep;34(9):2313-29. [PMID: 22815187]

Soeiro-de-Souza MG, Salvadore G, Moreno RA, Otaduy MR, Chaim KT, Gattaz WF, Zarate CA Jr, Machado-Vieira R. Bcl-2 rs956572 Polymorphism is associated with increased anterior cingulate cortical glutamate in euthymic bipolar I disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 2013 Feb;38(3):468-75. [PMID: 23072837]

Zarate CA Jr, Mathews D, Ibrahim L, Franco Chaves J, Marquardt C, Ukoh I, Jolkovsky L, Brutsche N, Smith MA, Luckenbaugh D. A randomized trial of a low trapping non-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channel blocker in major depression. Biol Psychiatry 2013 Aug 15;74(4):257-64. [PMID: 23206319]


Aan Het Rot M, Zarate CA Jr, Charney DS, Mathew SJ. Ketamine for depression: where do we go from here? Biol Psychiatry 2012;72:548-554. [PMID: 22705040]

Cornwell BR, Salvadore G, Furey M, Marquardt CA, Brutsche NE, Grillon C, Zarate CA Jr. Synaptic potentiation is critical for rapid antidepressant response to ketamine. Biological Psychiatry 2012;72:555-561. [PMID: 22521148]

Duncan WC Jr, Selter J, Sarasso S, Luckenbaugh DA, Yuan P, Tononi G, Zarate CA Jr. Concomitant BDNF and slow wave sleep changes indicate ketamine-induced plasticity in major depressive disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacology 2012;7:1-11. [PMID: 22676966]

Fujita M, Hines CS, Zoghbi SS, Mallinger AG, Dickstein LP, Liow J-S, Hall M, Zhang Y, Pike VW, Drevets WC, Innis RB, Zarate CA Jr. Downregulation of brain phosphodiesterase type IV measured with 11C-(R)-rolipram PET in major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2012;72:548-554. [PMID: 22677471]

Furey ML, Nugent AC, Speer AM, Luckenbaugh DA, Hoffman EM, Frankel E, Drevets WC, Zarate CA Jr. Baseline mood-state measures as predictors of antidepressant response to scopolamine. Psychiatry Res 2012;196:63-7. [PMID: 22349648]

Ibrahim L, Diazgranados N, Franco Chaves J, Cravchik A, Brutsche N, Newberg A, Kronstein P, Ameli R, Khalife S, Wainer I, Luckenbaugh DA, Manji HK, Zarate CA Jr. Course of improvement in depressive symptoms to a single-intravenous infusion of ketamine in a double-blind, placebo-controlled maintenance of response study with riluzole. Neuropsychopharmacology 2012;37:1526-33. [PMID: 22298121]

Ibrahim L, Diazgranados N, Jolkovsky L, Luckenbaugh DA, Herring WJ, Potter WZ, Zarate CA Jr. Brief reports: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot trial of the oral selective NR2B antagonist MK-0657 in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2012;32:551-7. [PMID: 22722512]

Kaddurah-Daouk R, Yuan P, Boyle S, Matson W, Wang Z, Zeng ZB, Zhu H, Dougherty, Yao J, Chen G, Guitart X, Carlson P, Neumeister A, Zarate CA Jr, Krishnan RR, Manji HK, Drevets W. Cerebrospinal fluid metabolome in mood disorders. Scientific Report 2012;2:667. [PMID: 22993692]

Khairova R, Zarate CA Jr, Machado-Vieira R. The selective effects of lithium on oxidative stress parameters in healthy volunteers. Molecular Medicine Reports 2012;5:680-682. [PMID: 22200861]

Kim P, Thomas LA, Rosen BH, Moscicki AM, Brotman MA, Zarate CA, Blair RJ, Pine DS, Leibenluft E. Differing amygdala responses to facial expressions in children and adults with bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2012;169:642-649. [PMID: 22535257]

Laje G, Lally N, Mathews D, Brutsche N, Chemerinski A, Akula N, Kelmendi B, Simen A, McMahon JF, Sanacora G, Zarate CA Jr. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Vall66Met polymorphism and antidepressant efficacy of ketamine in depressed patients. Biol Psychiatry 2012;72:e27-8. [PMID: 22771240]

Luckenbaugh DA, Ibrahim L, Brutsche N, Franco-Chaves J, Mathews D, Marquardt CA, Cassarly C, Zarate CA Jr. Family history of alcohol dependence and antidepressant response to an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in bipolar depression. Bipolar Disorders 2012;14:880-7. [PMID: 22978511]

Mathews D, Zarate CA Jr. Targeting the glutamatergic system to treat major depressive disorder: Rationale and progress to date. Drugs 2012;72:1313-1333. [PMID: 22731961]

Soeiro-de-Souza MG, Dias VV, Figueira ML, Forlenza OV, Gattaz WF, Zarate CA Jr, Machado-Vieira R. Translating neurotrophic and cellular plasticity: from pathophysiology to improved therapeutics for bipolar disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2012 Nov;126(5):332-41. [PMID: 22676371]

Turner A, Furey M, Drevets W, Zarate CA Jr, Nugent A. Association between subcortical volumes and verbal memory in unmedicated depressed patients and healthy controls. Neuropsychologia 2012;50:2348-55. [PMID: 22714007]

Zhao X, Venkata SL, Moaddel R, Luckenbaugh DA, Brutsche NE, Ibrahim L, Zarate CA Jr, Mager DE, Wainer IW. Simultaneous population pharmacokinetic modeling of ketamine and three major metabolites in patients with treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Br J Pharmacol 2012;74:304-14. [PMID: 22295895]

Weathers JD, Stringaris A, Deveney CM, Brotman MA, Zarate CA Jr, Connolly ME, Fromm SJ, Pine DS, Leibenluft E. A developmental study of the neural circuitry mediating motor inhibition in bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2012;169:633-41. [PMID: 22581312]

Zanotti-Fregonara P, Hines CS, Zoghbi SS, Liow J-S, Zhang Y, Pike VW, Drevets WC, Mallinger A, Zarate CA Jr, Fujita M, Innis RB. Population-based input function and image-derived input function are accurate and precise alternatives to serial arterial blood sampling for [11C](R)-rolipram PET imaging. Neuroimage 2012;63:1532-1541. [PMID: 22906792]

Zarate CA Jr, Brutsche NE, Ibrahim L, Franco-Chaves J, Diazgranados N, Cravchik A, Selter J, Marquardt CA, Liberty V, Luckenbaugh. Replication of ketamine's antidepressant efficacy in bipolar depression: a randomized controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry 2012;71:939-46. [PMID: 22297150]

Zarate CA Jr, Franco Chaves J, Brutsche N, Ibrahim L, Laje G, Luckenbaugh DA, Ramamoorthy A, Moaddel R, Wainer I. Replication of ketamine's antidepressant efficacy in bipolar depression: a randomized controlled add-on trial. Biol Psychiatry 2012:72:331-8. [PMID: 22297150]


Hunsberger J, Machado-Vieira R, Austin D, Zarate CA, Chuang D-M, Chen G, Reed J, Husseini MK. Bax inhibitor-1, a modulator of endoplasmic reticulum cellular stress, confers affective resilience. Brain Res. 2011 Jul 27;1403:19-27. [PMID: 22200861]

Ibrahim L, Diazgranados N, Luckenbaugh DA, Machado-Vieira R, Bauman J, Mallinger AG, Zarate CA Jr. Rapid antidepressant response to an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in ECT-resistant major depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2011;35:1155-9. [PMID: 21466832]

Ibrahim L, Duncan W, Luckenbaugh DA, Yuan P, Machado-Vieira R, Zarate CA Jr. Rapid antidepressant changes with sleep deprivation in major depressive disorder are associated with changes in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): a pilot study. Brain Res Bull 2011;86:129-33. [PMID: 21704134]

Javitt DC, Schoepp D, Kalivas P, Volkow N, Zarate C, Bear M, Umbricht D, Hajos M, Potter W, Lee C-M. Translating glutamate: from pathophysiology to treatment. Science Translational Medicine 2011 Sep 28;3(102):102mr2. [PMID: 21957170]

Machado-Vieira R, Ibrahim L, Henter I, Zarate CA Jr. Novel glutamatergic agents for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 2011;100:678-687. [PMID: 21971560]

Machado-VieiraR, Pivovarova NB, Stanika RI, Zarate CA Jr, Drevets WC, Brantner CA, Baum A, Laje G, McMahon FJ, Chen G, Du J, Manji HK, Andrews B: A Bcl-2 gene polymorphism rs956572AA increases inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor -mediated endoplasmic reticulum calcium release in subjects with bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Feb 15;69(4):344-52. [PMID: 21167476]

Malkesman O, G, Austin DR, Tragon T, Rompala G, Hamidi AB, Cui Z, Young S, Luckenbaugh DMA4, Zarate CA, Manji HK, Nakazawa K, Guang Chen G: Acute D-serine treatment produces antidepressant-like effects in rodents. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2011;12:1-14. [PMID: 21906419]

Salvadore G, van der Veen JW, Zhang Y, Machado-Vieira R, Baumann J, Luckenbaugh DA, Shen J, Drevets WC. Zarate CA Jr. An investigation of amino acid neurotransmitters as potential predictors of clinical improvement to ketamine in depression. Int J Neuropsychopharmacology 2011:1:1-10. [PMID: 22040773]

Savitz JB, Nugent AC, Bogers W, Roiser JP, Bain EE, Neumeister A, Zarate CA Jr, Manji HK, Cannon DM, Marrett S, Henn F, Charney DS, Drevets WC. Habenula volume in bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: A high resolution MRI study. Biol Psychiatry 2011;69:336-43. [PMID: 21094939]


Cornwell BR, Salvadore G, Colon-Rosario V, Latov D, Holroyd T, Carver FW, Coppola R, Manji HK, Zarate CA Jr., Grillon C. Abnormal hippocampal functioning and impaired spatial navigation in depressed individuals. Am J Psychiatry 2010;167:836-844. [PMID: 20439387]

DiazGranados, Ibrahim L, Brutsche N, Ameli R, Henter I, Luckenbaugh D, Machado-Vieira R, Zarate CA Jr. Rapid resolution of suicidal ideation after a single ketamine infusion in patients with treatment-resistant major depression. J Clin Psychiatry, 2010;71:1605-11. [PMID: 20673547]

Diazgranados N, Ibrahim L, Brutsche NE, Newberg A, Kronstein P, Khalife S, Kammerer WA, Quezado Z, Luckenbaugh DA, Salvadore G, Machado-Vieira R, Manji HK, Zarate CA Jr. A randomized add-on trial of an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist in treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2010;67:793-802. [PMID: 20679587]

Salvadore G, Cornwell BR, Sambataro F, Latov D, Colon-Rosario V, Carver F, Holroyd T, Machado-Vieira R, Grillon C, Drevets WC, Zarate CA Jr. Anterior cingulate desynchronization and functional connectivity with the amygdala during a working memory task predict rapid antidepressant response to ketamine. Neuropsychopharmacology 2010;35:1415-1422. [PMID: 20393460]

Savitz J, Nugent A, Bogers w, Liu A, Sills R, Luckenbaugh D, Bain E, Price, Zarate CA Jr, Manji HK, Cannon, Marrett S, Charney D, Drevets W. Amygdala volume in depressed patients with bipolar disorder assessed using high resolution 3T MRI: The impact of medication. Neuroimage, 2010;49:2966-76. [PMID: 19931399]


Salvadore G, Nugent AC, Chen G, Akula N, Yuan P, Cannon DM, Zarate CA Jr, McMahon FJ, Manji HK, Drevets WC. Bcl-2 polymorphism influences gray matter volume in the ventral striatum of healthy volunteers. Biol Psychiatry 2009;15:66:804-7. [PMID: 19589501]


Maeng S, Zarate CA Jr, Du J, Schloesser R, McCammon J, Chen G, Manji HK. Cellular mechanism underlying the antidepressant effects of ketamine: role of AMPA receptors. Biol Psychiatry 2008;63:349-352 [PMID: 17643398]

Sanacora G, Zarate CA Jr*, Krystal J, Manji HK. Targeting the glutamatergic system to develop novel, improved therapeutics for mood disorders. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 2008;7:426-437. [PMID: 22731961]


Du J, Wei J, Chen Z, Falke C, Zarate CA Jr, Manji HK. The anticonvulsants lamotrigine, riluzole and valproate differentially regulate AMPA receptor trafficking: relationship to clinical effects in mood disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology 2007;32:793-802. [PMID: 16936714]

Gould NF, Holmes, KM, Luckenbaugh DA, Fantie BD, Pine DS, Burgess N, Manji HK, Zarate CA Jr. Performance on a virtual reality spatial memory navigation task in depressed patients. Am J Psychiatry 2007;164:516-519. [PMID: 17329478]

Mah L, Zarate CA, Carson R, Singh J, Duan Y-F, Luckenbaugh, Manji HK, Drevets WC. Regional glucose metabolic abnormalities in bipolar II depression. Biol Psychiatry 2007;61:765-775. [PMID: 17027930]

Zarate CA Jr, Singh JB, Carlson PJ, Quiroz J, Jolkovsky L, Luckenbaugh DA, Manji HK. Efficacy of a protein kinase C inhibitor (tamoxifen) in the treatment of acute mania: a pilot study. Bipolar Disorders 2007;9:551-560. [PMID: 17845270]


Nugent AC, Milham MP, Bain EE, Mah L, Cannon DM, Marrett S, Zarate CA, Pine DS, Price JL, Drevets WC. Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder investigated with MRI and voxel-based morphometry. Neuroimage 2006;30:485-97. [PMID: 16256376]

Zarate CA, Jr, Singh J, Carlson P, Brutsche N, Ameli R, Luckenbaugh D, Charney DS, Manji HK. A Randomized Trial of an NMDA Antagonist in Treatment-Resistant Major Depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2006;63:856-64. [PMID:16894061]

Zarate CA Jr, Singh J, Manji HK. Cellular plasticity cascades: targets for the development of novel therapeutics for Bipolar Disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 2006 1;59:1006-1020. [PMID:16487491]

Zarate CA Jr, Singh J, Quiroz, JA, Denicoff KD, De Jesus G, Luckenbaugh D, Manji HK, Charney DS. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of memantine in the treatment of major depression. Am J Psychiatry, 2006;163:153-15 [PMID: 16390905]


Zarate CA Jr, Singh J, Quiroz J, De Jesus G, Denicoff K, Luckenbaugh D, Manji HK, Charney DS. An Open-label trial of the glutamate modulating agent riluzole in combination with lithium for the treatment of bipolar depression. Biol Psychiatry 2005;57:430-432 [PMID:15705360]

Non-Invasive Neuromodulation Unit (NNU)


Kellner C, Husain M, Knapp R, McCall V, Petriedes G, Rudorfer M, Young R, Sampson S, McClintock S, Mueller M, Prudic J, Greenberg R, Weiner R, Bailine S, Rosenquist P, Raza A, Kaliora S, Latoussakis V, Tobias K, Liebman L, Geduldig E, Teklehaimano A, Dooley M, Lisanby S (2016) A Novel Strategy for Continuation ECT in Geriatric Depression: Phase 2 of the PRIDE Study. Am J Psychiatry, in press (e-pub ahead of print)

Kellner C, Husain M, Knapp R, McCall V, Petriedes G, Rudorfer M, Young R, McClintock S, Mueller M, Prudic J, Greenberg R, Weiner R, Bailine S, Raza A, Kaliora S, Latoussakis V, Tobias K, Liebman L, Geduldig E, Teklehaimano A, Lisanby S (2016) Right Unilateral Ultrabrief Pulse ECT in Geriatric Depression: Phase 1 of the PRIDE Study. Am J Psychiatry, in press (e-pub ahead of print)

Friel KM, Kuo HC, Fuller J, Ferre CL, Brandão M, Carmel JB, Bleyenheuft Y, Gowatsky JL, Stanford AD, Rowny SB, Luber B, Bassi B, Murphy DL, Lisanby SH, Gordon AM (2016) Skilled Bimanual Training Drives Motor Cortex Plasticity in Children With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, in press (e-pub ahead of print)

Goetz SM, Luber B, Lisanby SH, Murphy DL, Kozyrkov IC, Grill WM, Peterchev AV (2016) Enhancement of Neuromodulation with Novel Pulse Shapes Generated by Controllable Pulse Parameter Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Brain Stimul 9:39-47

Kuo HC, Ferre CL, Carmel JB, Gowatsky JL, Stanford AD, Rowny SB, Lisanby SH, Gordon AM, Friel KM (2016) Using diffusion tensor imaging to identify corticospinal tract projection patterns in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol, in press (e-pub ahead of print)

Lee WH, Lisanby SH, Laine AF, Peterchev AV (2016) Comparison of electric field strength and spatial distribution of electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy in a realistic human head model. Eur Psychiatry 36:55-64

Lisanby S (2016) Magnetic Seizure Therapy for the Treatment of Depression, in Brain Stimulation: Methodologies and Interventions.  pp. 123-148.


Deng ZD, Lisanby SH, Peterchev AV (2015) Effect of anatomical variability on electric field characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy and magnetic seizure therapy: a parametric modeling study. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 23:22-31

Deng ZD, Lisanby SH, Peterchev AV (2015) On the characterization of coils for deep transcranial magnetic stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol 126:1456-7

Deng ZD, Lisanby SH, Peterchev AV (2015) On the stimulation depth of transcranial magnetic stimulation coils. Clin Neurophysiol 126:843-4

Deng ZD, McClinctock SM, Lisanby SH (2015) Brain network properties in depressed patients receiving seizure therapy: A graph theoretical analysis of peri-treatment resting EEG. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2015:2203-6

Deng ZD, McClintock SM, Oey NE, Luber B, Lisanby SH (2015) Neuromodulation for mood and memory: from the engineering bench to the patient bedside. Curr Opin Neurobiol 30:38-43

Goetz SM, Lisanby SH, Murphy DL, Price RJ, O'Grady G, Peterchev AV (2015) Impulse noise of transcranial magnetic stimulation: measurement, safety, and auditory neuromodulation. Brain Stimul 8:161-3

Kellner CH, Geduldig ET, Knapp RG, Young RC, Weiner RD, Greenberg RM, Prudic J, McCall WV, Petrides G, Husain MM, Rudorfer MV, Lisanby SH (2015) More data on speed of remission with ECT in geriatric depression. Br J Psychiatry 206:167

Kellner CH, PRIDE Investigators Group, Lisanby SH, Weiner R, Prudic J, Rudorfer MV, Young RC, Petrides G, Vaughn McCall W, Husain M, Greenberg RM, Knapp RG (2015) Speed of response to electroconvulsive therapy compared with ketamine. Psychiatry Res 225:215

Landeros-Weisenberger A, Mantovani A, Motlagh MG, de Alvarenga PG, Katsovich L, Leckman JF, Lisanby SH (2015) Randomized Sham Controlled Double-blind Trial of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Adults With Severe Tourette Syndrome. Brain Stimul 8:574-81

Lee WH, Lisanby SH, Laine AF, Peterchev AV (2015) Electric Field Model of Transcranial Electric Stimulation in Nonhuman Primates: Correspondence to Individual Motor Threshold. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 62:2095-105

Leuchter AF, Cook IA, Feifel D, Goethe JW, Husain M, Carpenter LL, Thase ME, Krystal AD, Philip NS, Bhati MT, Burke WJ, Howland RH, Sheline YI, Aaronson ST, Iosifescu DV, O'Reardon JP, Gilmer WS, Jain R, Burgoyne KS, Phillips B, Manberg PJ, Massaro J, Hunter AM, Lisanby SH, George MS (2015) Efficacy and Safety of Low-field Synchronized Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (sTMS) for Treatment of Major Depression. Brain Stimul 8:787-94

Levkovitz Y, Isserles M, Padberg F, Lisanby SH, Bystritsky A, Xia G, Tendler A, Daskalakis ZJ, Winston JL, Dannon P, Hafez HM, Reti IM, Morales OG, Schlaepfer TE, Hollander E, Berman JA, Husain MM, Sofer U, Stein A, Adler S, Deutsch L, Deutsch F, Roth Y, George MS, Zangen A (2015) Efficacy and safety of deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for major depression: a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial. World Psychiatry 14:64-73

Peterchev AV, Krystal AD, Rosa MA, Lisanby SH (2015) Individualized Low-Amplitude Seizure Therapy: Minimizing Current for Electroconvulsive Therapy and Magnetic Seizure Therapy. Neuropsychopharmacology 40:2076-84