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Noninvasive Neuromodulation Unit (NNU) Noninvasive Neuromodulation Unit (NNU)

William T. Regenold, MDCM

William T. Regenold, MDCM - Medical Director

Staff Clinician

Dr. Regenold is a Senior Research Physician and the Medical Director of the Noninvasive Neuromodulation Unit of the Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch of the National Institute of Mental Health Intramural Research Program at the National Institutes of Health.

Dr. William T. Regenold is a board certified general and geriatric psychiatrist. Dr. Regenold earned his medical degree from the McGill University Faculty of Medicine in Montréal. He interned in medicine, neurology and psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center in Baltimore and completed his psychiatry residency training at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore and Maudsley Hospital in London. He came to the NNU in 2019 after working for 24 years at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore where he served as Director of the Division of Geriatric Psychiatry, the Geriatric Psychiatry Fellowship, the Adult Inpatient Service, and the Electroconvulsive Therapy Service for the Department of Psychiatry.

Research Interests

As Medical Director, Dr. Regenold is involved in all of the NNU’s research studies. His particular research interests are in the pathophysiology of mood disorders especially related to brain energy metabolism; nutritional, medical and neurologic aspects of psychiatric disorders; the mechanisms of the therapeutic and adverse effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and the improvement and individualization of noninvasive brain stimulation therapies for major depression including ECT and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).

Selected Publications

How electroconvulsive therapy works in the treatment of depression: is it the seizure, the electricity, or both? Deng ZD, Robins PL, Regenold W, Rohde P, Dannhauer M, Lisanby SH. (2023). Neuropsychopharmacology. PMID: 37488281

Noninvasive neuromodulation of the prefrontal cortex in mental health disorders. Regenold WT, Deng ZD, Lisanby SH. (2021). Neuropsychopharmacology. PMID: 34272471

Population Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Psychiatric Readmissions in U.S. Hospitals. Slade EP, Jahn DR, Regenold WT, Case BG. (2017). JAMA Psychiatry. PMID: 28658489

Nonconvulsive electrotherapy for treatment resistant unipolar and bipolar major depressive disorder: a proof-of-concept trial. Regenold WT, Noorani RJ, Piez D, Patel P. (2015). Brain Stimulation. PMID: 26187603

A mitochondrial bioenergetic basis of depression. Klinedinst NJ and Regenold WT. (2015). J Bioenerg Biomembr. PMID: 25262287

The Neuropsychiatry of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in the Elderly. Lachner C, Steinle N, Regenold WT. (2012). J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. PMID: 22450609

Mitochondrial detachment of hexokinase 1 in mood and psychotic disorders: Implications for brain energy metabolism and neurotrophic signaling. Regenold WT, Pratt M, Nekkalapu S, Shapiro PS, Kristian T, Fiskum G. (2012). J Psychiatr Res. PMID: 22018957

Elevated Cerebrospinal Fluid Lactate Concentrations in Patients with Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia: Implications for the Mitochondrial Dysfunction Hypothesis. Regenold, WT, Phatak P, Marano CM, Sassan A, Conley RR, Kling MA. (2009). Biol Psychiatry. PMID: 19103439

Myelin staining of deep white matter in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar major depression. Regenold WT, Phatak P, Marano CM, Gearhart L, Viens CH, Hisley KC. (2007). Psychiatry Res. PMID: 17433451

Post-mortem evidence from human brain tissue of disturbed glucose metabolism in mood and psychotic disorders. Regenold WT, Phatak P, Kling MA, Hauser P. 2004. Molec Psychiatry. PMID: 15098005